Regulation of miRNA (microRNA) biogenesis shapes the profiles of miRNAs in the living cell, contributing to cell identity and function. Importantly, aberrant miRNA levels have been linked to a variety of human pathological states. In recent years, a number of proteins have been shown to regulate the miRNA biogenesis at the level of Drosha and Dicer cleavage. A large proportion of these factors regulate miRNA production through binding to the TL (terminal loop) regions of miRNA progenitors. In the present paper, we review the current knowledge about pri-miRNA (primary miRNA) and pre-miRNA (precursor miRNA) TL involvement in the regulation of miRNA biogenesis.

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