The Ccr4–Not complex is one of the major deadenylase factors present in eukaryotic cells. This multi-subunit protein complex is composed of at least seven stably associated subunits in mammalian cells including two enzymatic deadenylase subunits: one DEDD (Asp-Glu-Asp-Asp)-type deadenylase (either CNOT7/human Caf1/Caf1a or CNOT8/human Pop2/Caf1b/Calif) and one EEP (endonuclease–exonuclease–phosphatase)-type enzyme (either CNOT6/human Ccr4/Ccr4a or CNOT6L/human Ccr4-like/Ccr4b). Here, the role of the human Ccr4–Not complex in cytoplasmic deadenylation of mRNA is discussed, including the mechanism of its recruitment to mRNA and the role of the BTG/Tob proteins.

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