Interest in studying the biology of LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) started in 2004 when missense mutations in the LRRK2 gene were linked to an inherited form of Parkinson's disease with clinical and pathological presentation resembling the sporadic syndrome. LRRK2 is a complex molecule containing domains implicated in protein interactions, as well as kinase and GTPase activities. The observation that the common G2019S mutation increases kinase activity in vitro suggests that altered phosphorylation of LRRK2 targets may have pathological outcomes. Given that protein kinases are ideal targets for drug therapies, much effort has been directed at understanding the role of LRRK2 kinase activity on disease onset. However, no clear physiological substrates have been identified to date, indicating that much research is still needed to fully understand the signalling pathways orchestrated by LRRK2 and deregulated under pathological conditions.

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