Rho GTPases comprise a family of molecular switches that control signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells. A conformational change induced upon binding GTP promotes an interaction with target (effector) proteins to generate a cellular response. A highly conserved function of Rho GTPases from yeast to humans is to control the actin cytoskeleton, although, in addition, they promote a wide range of other cellular activities. Changes in the actin cytoskeleton drive many dynamic aspects of cell behaviour, including morphogenesis, migration, phagocytosis and cytokinesis, and the dysregulation of Rho GTPases is associated with numerous human diseases and disorders.

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