Structures of the inactive state of the thermostabilized β1-adrenoceptor have been determined bound to eight different ligands, including full agonists, partial agonists, inverse agonists and biased agonists. Comparison of the structures shows distinct differences within the binding pocket that correlate with the pharmacological properties of the ligands. These data suggest that full agonists stabilize a structure with a contracted binding pocket and a rotamer change of serine (5.46) compared with when antagonists are bound. Inverse agonists may prevent both of these occurrences, whereas partial agonists stabilize a contraction of the binding pocket but not the rotamer change of serine (5.46). It is likely that subtle changes in the interactions between transmembrane helix 5 (H5) and H3/H4 on agonist binding promote the formation of the activated state.

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