Over the years, accumulating evidence has indicated that D-serine represents the main endogenous ligand of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors. In the brain, the concentration of D-serine stored in cells is defined by the activity of two enzymes: serine racemase (responsible for both the synthesis and degradation) and D-amino acid oxidase (which catalyses D-serine degradation). The present review is focused on human D-amino acid oxidase, discussing the mechanisms involved in modulating enzyme activity and stability, with the aim to substantiate the pivotal role of D-amino acid oxidase in brain D-serine metabolism.

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