Poly(A) tails are important regulators of mRNA stability and translational efficiency. Cytoplasmic removal of poly(A) tails by 3′→5′ exonucleases (deadenylation) is the rate-limiting step in mRNA degradation. Two exonuclease complexes contribute the majority of the deadenylation activity in eukaryotes: Ccr4–Not and Pan2–Pan3. These can be specifically recruited to mRNA to regulate mRNA stability or translational efficiency, thereby fine-tuning gene expression. In the present review, we discuss the activities and roles of the Pan2–Pan3 deadenylation complex.

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