AD (Alzheimer's disease) is the most prevalent form of dementia in the aged population. Definitive diagnosis of AD is based on the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that are identified in post-mortem brain specimens. A third pathological component is inflammation. AD results from multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Among other factors, epidemiological studies report beneficial effects of caffeine, a non-selective antagonist of adenosine receptors. In the present review, we discuss the impact of caffeine and the adenosinergic system in AD pathology as well as consequences in terms of pathology and therapeutics.

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