A chronic hyperactivated angiogenic state in cancer plays an important role in tumour growth and metastasis and has been identified as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Inhibition of this process has been associated with tumour suppression in many pre-clinical contexts using different animal tumour models. Anti-angiogenic therapeutics were subsequently developed and used to treat several prevalent types of human cancer. However, recent clinical experience has revealed limitations of this approach in treating cancer as patient response varies over a wide range. Given that there are complex underlying molecular and cellular changes provoked by anti-angiogenic treatment within the tumour microenvironment (TME), it is not surprising that modest effectiveness and resistance have been observed in the clinical setting. This article discusses these issues in the context of VEGF-A-targeted anti-angiogenic treatment of cancer and provides insight into the importance of tumour endothelium for understanding the tumour response to anti-angiogenic therapy. Special consideration is also given to possible approaches for investigating how endothelium contributes to the tumour response to anti-angiogenic agents and for exploring the therapeutic and biomarker potential of targeting tumour endothelium.

You do not currently have access to this content.