There has been significant investment in developing novel therapies to target solid tumour vasculature. Different technical approaches have been utilized with the aim of inhibiting tumour angiogenesis or compromising the function or stability of pre-existing tumour blood vessels. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling axis remains the most widely studied, with biological and small-molecule therapeutics now registered for clinical use. However, despite these successes, the activity of these agents is not as widespread as was first postulated. The present review discusses the clinical successes of the VEGF inhibitors, the factors that may limit their utility, and the potential opportunities to maximize benefit from treatment with these agents in the future.

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