Mitochondria are the powerhouse of cells as they produce the bulk of ATP which is consumed by the cell. They form a highly interconnected network that is governed by fission and fusion processes. In addition, mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are found in close proximity to each other and it is thought that they maintain contact sites to exchange molecules. The regulation and the function of these contact sites need to be further explored. The small GTPase Arf1 (ADP-ribosylation factor 1), which is best known for its essential role in the generation of coatomer protein I (COPI)-coated vesicles at the Golgi complex appears to be also essential for the dynamics and maintenance of mitochondrial function, presumably at ER–mitochondrial contact sites.

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