The 18-kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) is known to be highly expressed in several types of cancer, including gliomas, whereas expression in normal brain is low. TSPO functions in glioma are still incompletely understood. The TSPO can be quantified pre-operatively with molecular imaging making it an ideal candidate for personalized treatment of patient with glioma. Studies have proposed to exploit the TSPO as a transporter of chemotherapics to selectively target tumour cells in the brain. Our studies proved that positron emission tomography (PET)-imaging can contribute to predict progression of patients with glioma and that molecular imaging with TSPO-specific ligands is suitable to stratify patients in view of TSPO-targeted treatment. Finally, we proved that TSPO in gliomas is predominantly expressed by tumour cells.

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