The liver X receptors (LXRs), LXRα and LXRβ, are transcription factors with well-established roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. In addition, LXRs influence innate and adaptive immunity, including responses to inflammatory stimuli, proliferation and differentiation, migration, apoptosis and survival. However, the majority of work describing the role of LXRs in immune cells has been carried out in mouse models, and there are a number of known species-specific differences concerning LXR function. Here we review what is known about the role of LXRs in human immune cells, demonstrating the importance of these receptors in the integration of lipid metabolism and immune function, but also highlighting the need for a better understanding of the species, isoform, and cell-type specific effects of LXR activation.

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