Tribbles homolog 1 (Trib1) was identified as a common integration site of the Homeobox a9 (Hoxa9)/murine ecotropic virus integration site 1 (Meis1) retrovirus in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Trib1 is by itself a transforming gene for myeloid cells but also significantly accelerates progression of Hoxa9/Meis1-induced AML. The strong transforming activity of Trib1 depends on its bi-directional function in CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) degradation and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. TRIB1 is also involved in a certain type of human AML and a TRIB1 somatic point mutation R107L was identified in a case of Down syndrome (DS)-related acute megakaryocytic leukaemia. Although Trib1 knockout (KO) did not suppress haematopoiesis in mouse bone marrow significantly, increase in mature granulocytes was observed and promotion of myeloid differentiation was associated with the increased C/EBPα protein. Trib1 thus plays an important role in myeloid cell development and transformation.

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