Cofactor engineering has been long identified as a valuable tool for metabolic engineering. Besides interventions targeting the pools of redox cofactors, many studies addressed the adenosine pools of microorganisms. In this mini-review, we discuss interventions that manipulate the availability of ATP with a special focus on ATP wasting strategies. We discuss the importance to fine-tune the ATP yield along a production pathway to balance process performance parameters like product yield and volumetric productivity.

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