Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) accumulates in acidocalcisomes, acidic calcium stores that have been found from bacteria to human cells. Proton pumps, such as the vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase (V-H+-PPase or VP1), the vacuolar proton ATPase (V-H+-ATPase) or both, maintain their acidity. A vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) complex is involved in the synthesis and translocation of polyP to these organelles in several eukaryotes, such as yeast, trypanosomatids, Apicomplexan and algae. Studies in trypanosomatids have revealed the role of polyP and acidocalcisomes in osmoregulation and calcium signalling.

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