Cellular proteins are required for all steps of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression including transcription, splicing, 3′-end formation/polyadenylation, nuclear export and translation. SR proteins are a family of cellular RNA-binding proteins that regulate and functionally integrate multiple steps of gene expression. Specific SR proteins are best characterised for regulating HIV-1 RNA splicing by binding specific locations in the viral RNA, though recently they have also been shown to control transcription, 3′-end formation, and translation. Due to their importance in regulating HIV-1 gene expression, SR proteins and their regulatory factors are potential antiviral drug targets.

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