Exercise training has been extensively studied in cancer settings as part of prevention or rehabilitation strategies, yet emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can also directly affect tumor-specific outcomes. The underlying mechanisms for this exercise-dependent cancer protection are just starting to be elucidated. To this end, evasion of immune surveillance and tumor-associated inflammation are established as hallmarks of cancer, and exercise may target cancer incidence and progression through regulation of these mechanisms. Here, I review the role of exercise in protection from cancer through mobilization and activation of cytotoxic immune cells, restriction of inflammatory signaling pathways in myeloid immune cells, and regulation of acute and chronic systemic inflammatory responses. In conclusion, I propose that exercise has the potential to target tumor growth through regulation of immune and inflammatory functions, and exercise may be pursued as anticancer treatment through incorporation into standard oncological therapy to the benefit of the cancer patients.

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