Helicases are molecular motors that play central roles in nucleic acid metabolism. Mutations in genes encoding DNA helicases of the RecQ and iron–sulfur (Fe–S) helicase families are linked to hereditary disorders characterized by chromosomal instabilities, highlighting the importance of these enzymes. Moreover, mono-allelic RecQ and Fe–S helicase mutations are associated with a broad spectrum of cancers. This review will discuss and contrast the specialized molecular functions and biological roles of RecQ and Fe–S helicases in DNA repair, the replication stress response, and the regulation of gene expression, laying a foundation for continued research in these important areas of study.

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