Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is mutated in familial Parkinson's disease, and pathogenic mutations activate the kinase activity. A tour de force screen by Mann and Alessi and co-workers identified a subset of Rab GTPases as bona fide LRRK2 substrates. Rab GTPases are master regulators of membrane trafficking and this short review will summarize what we know about the connection between LRRK2 and this family of regulatory proteins. While, in most cases, Rab GTPase phosphorylation is predicted to interfere with Rab protein function, the discovery of proteins that show preferential binding to phosphorylated Rabs suggests that more complex interactions may also contribute to mutant LRRK2-mediated pathology.

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