Coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters (acyl-CoAs) are essential intermediates of metabolism. Inborn errors of acyl-CoA metabolism include a large fraction of the classical organic acidemias. These conditions can involve liver, muscle, heart and brain, and can be fatal. These conditions are increasingly detected by newborn screening. There is a renewed interest in CoA metabolism and in developing effective new treatments. Here, we review theories of the pathophysiology in relation to mitochondrial CoA sequestration, toxicity and redistribution (CASTOR).