Inflammation has been highlighted as a key factor in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) development, particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-6 activates JAK-STAT signalling to induce transcription of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic genes, enabling PAH progression, as well as the transcription of suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) which limits IL-6 signalling. Current PAH therapies include prostanoid drugs which induce vasodilation via stimulating intracellular 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. cAMP can also inhibit IL-6-mediated endothelial dysfunction via the induction of SOCS3. Thus, we propose that an important mechanism by which cAMP-mobilising prostanoid drugs limit PAH is by inhibiting IL-6-mediated pulmonary inflammation and remodelling via SOCS3 inhibition of IL-6 signalling. Further clarification may result in effective strategies with which to target the IL-6/JAK-STAT signalling pathway in PAH.

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