Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are the two most common autoimmune endocrine diseases that have rising global incidence. These diseases are caused by the immune-mediated destruction of hormone-producing endocrine cells, pancreatic beta cells and thyroid follicular cells, respectively. Both genetic predisposition and environmental factors govern the onset of T1D and HT. Recent evidence strongly suggests that the intestinal microbiota plays a role in accelerating or preventing disease progression depending on the compositional and functional profile of the gut bacterial communities. Accumulating evidence points towards the interplay between the disruption of gut microbial homeostasis (dysbiosis) and the breakdown of host immune tolerance at the onset of both diseases. In this review, we will summarize the major recent findings about the microbiome alterations associated with T1D and HT, and the connection of these changes to disease states. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential mechanisms by which gut microbial dysbiosis modulates the course of the disease, including disruption of intestinal barrier integrity and microbial production of immunomodulatory metabolites. The aim of this review is to provide broad insight into the role of gut microbiome in the pathophysiology of these diseases.

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