Osteoporosis (OP) is a bone metabolic disease, is characterized by degeneration of bone structure and decreased bone mass. It happens in more than 1/3 women and 1/5 men of over than 50 years old, which affects the health and lives of people. The main mechanism of OP is mainly that the dynamic balance between the bone formation and resorption is broken, so that bone resorption is more than bone formation. It is prone to result in bone metabolism disorder. There are many precipitating factor such as elder age, low hormone level, genetic factors and bad hobbies. At the same time, the occurrence of the OP and its complications has different degrees of impact on people's quality of life. Based on the current understanding of the OP, we summarized the etiology, current clinical drugs and potential targeting therapy for OP. Although the research have made many progress in explore what is the novel mechanism and how to improve the effect, there are still many problems in the treatment method that limit its application prospects and need to be solved. In this review, we mainly focus on the mechanism of OP and related research on the targeted treatment of OP. Hopefully, our summary will provide a reference to develop some novel strategies for the target therapy of OP.

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