The Tiam family proteins — Tiam1 and Tiam2/STEF — are Rac1-specific Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) with important functions in epithelial, neuronal, immune and other cell types. Tiam GEFs regulate cellular migration, proliferation and survival, mainly through activating and directing Rac1 signalling. Dysregulation of the Tiam GEFs is significantly associated with human diseases including cancer, immunological and neurological disorders. Uncovering the mechanisms and consequences of dysregulation is therefore imperative to improving the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Here we compare and contrast the subcellular localisation and function of Tiam1 and Tiam2/STEF, and review the evidence for their dysregulation in disease.

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