Primary cilia are hair-like projections of the cell membrane supported by an inner microtubule scaffold, the axoneme, which polymerizes out of a membrane-docked centriole at the ciliary base. By working as specialized signaling compartments, primary cilia provide an optimal environment for many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their effectors to efficiently transmit their signals to the rest of the cell. For this to occur, however, all necessary receptors and signal transducers must first accumulate at the ciliary membrane. Serotonin receptor 6 (HTR6) and Somatostatin receptor 3 (SSTR3) are two GPCRs whose signaling in brain neuronal cilia affects cognition and is implicated in psychiatric, neurodegenerative, and oncologic diseases. Over a decade ago, the third intracellular loops (IC3s) of HTR6 and SSTR3 were shown to contain ciliary localization sequences (CLSs) that, when grafted onto non-ciliary GPCRs, could drive their ciliary accumulation. Nevertheless, these CLSs were dispensable for ciliary targeting of HTR6 and SSTR3, suggesting the presence of additional CLSs, which we have recently identified in their C-terminal tails. Herein, we review the discovery and mapping of these CLSs, as well as the state of the art regarding how these CLSs may orchestrate ciliary accumulation of these GPCRs by controlling when and where they interact with the ciliary entry and exit machinery via adaptors such as TULP3, RABL2 and the BBSome.

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