O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification (PTM) that is actively added to and removed from thousands of intracellular proteins. As a PTM, O-GlcNAcylation tunes the functions of a protein in various ways, such as enzymatic activity, transcriptional activity, subcellular localization, intermolecular interactions, and degradation. Its regulatory roles often interplay with the phosphorylation of the same protein. Governed by ‘the Central Dogma’, the flow of genetic information is central to all cellular activities. Many proteins regulating this flow are O-GlcNAc modified, and their functions are tuned by the cycling sugar. Herein, we review the regulatory roles of O-GlcNAcylation on the epigenome, in DNA replication and repair, in transcription and in RNA processing, in protein translation and in protein turnover.

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