BAF complexes are multi-subunit chromatin remodelers, which have a fundamental role in genomic regulation. Large-scale sequencing efforts have revealed frequent BAF complex mutations in many human diseases, particularly in cancer and neurological disorders. These findings not only underscore the importance of the BAF chromatin remodelers in cellular physiological processes, but urge a more detailed understanding of their structure and molecular action to enable the development of targeted therapeutic approaches for diseases with BAF complex alterations. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the composition, assembly, structure, and function of BAF complexes, and the consequences of their disease-associated mutations. Furthermore, we highlight intra-complex subunit dependencies and synthetic lethal interactions, which have emerged as promising treatment modalities for BAF-related diseases.

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