In recent years, researchers have been pursuing a method to design and to construct life forms from scratch — in other words, to create artificial cells. In many studies, artificial cellular membranes have been successfully fabricated, allowing the research field to grow by leaps and bounds. Moreover, in addition to lipid bilayer membranes, proteins are essential factors required to construct any cellular metabolic reaction; for that reason, different cell-free expression systems under various conditions to achieve the goal of controlling the synthetic cascades of proteins in a confined area have been reported. Thus, in this review, we will discuss recent issues and strategies, enabling to control protein synthesis cascades that are being used, particularly in research on artificial cells.

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