Transcription is regulated and mediated by multiprotein complexes in a chromatin context. Transcription causes changes in DNA topology which is modulated by DNA topoisomerases, enzymes that catalyse changes in DNA topology via transient breaking and re-joining of one or both strands of the phosphodiester backbone. Mammals have six DNA topoisomerases, this review focuses on one, DNA topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B). In the absence of TOP2B transcription of many developmentally regulated genes is altered. Long genes seem particularly susceptible to the lack of TOP2B. Biochemical studies of the role of TOP2B in transcription regulated by ligands such as nuclear hormones, growth factors and insulin has revealed PARP1 associated with TOP2B and also PRKDC, XRCC5 and XRCC6. Analysis of publicly available databases of protein interactions confirms these interactions and illustrates interactions with other key transcriptional regulators including TRIM28. TOP2B has been shown to interact with proteins involved in chromosome organisation including CTCF and RAD21. Comparison of publicly available Chip-seq datasets reveals the location at which these proteins interact with genes. The availability of resources such as large datasets of protein–protein interactions, e.g. BioGrid and IntAct and protein–DNA interactions such as Chip-seq in GEO enables scientists to extend models and propose new hypotheses.

You do not currently have access to this content.