O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a widespread reversible modification on nucleocytoplasmic proteins that plays an important role in many biochemical processes and is highly relevant to numerous human diseases. The O-GlcNAc modification has diverse functional impacts on individual proteins and glycosites, and methods for editing this modification on substrates are essential to decipher these functions. Herein, we review recent progress in developing methods for O-GlcNAc regulation, with a focus on methods for editing O-GlcNAc with protein- and site-selectivity in cells. The applications, advantages, and limitations of currently available strategies for writing and erasing O-GlcNAc and future directions are also discussed. These emerging approaches to manipulate O-GlcNAc on a target protein in cells will greatly accelerate the development of functional studies and enable therapeutic interventions in the O-GlcNAc field.

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