Lipids comprise a diverse group of metabolites that are indispensable as energy storage molecules, cellular membrane components and mediators of inter- and intra-cellular signaling processes. Lipid homeostasis plays a crucial role in maintaining metabolic health in mammals including human beings. A growing body of evidence suggests that the circadian clock system ensures temporal orchestration of lipid homeostasis, and that perturbation of such diurnal regulation leads to the development of metabolic disorders comprising obesity and type 2 diabetes. In view of the emerging role of circadian regulation in maintaining lipid homeostasis, in this review, we summarize the current knowledge on lipid metabolic pathways controlled by the mammalian circadian system. Furthermore, we review the emerging connection between the development of human metabolic diseases and changes in lipid metabolites that belong to major classes of lipids. Finally, we highlight the mechanisms underlying circadian organization of lipid metabolic rhythms upon the physiological situation, and the consequences of circadian clock dysfunction for dysregulation of lipid metabolism.

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