Ubiquitination is a protein post-translational modification that affects protein localisation, stability and interactions. E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate the final step of the ubiquitination reaction by recognising target proteins and mediating the ubiquitin transfer from an E2 enzyme. DTX3L is a multi-domain E3 ubiquitin ligase in which the N-terminus mediates protein oligomerisation, a middle D3 domain mediates the interaction with PARP9, a RING domain responsible for recognising E2 ∼ Ub and a DTC domain has the dual activity of ADP-ribosylating ubiquitin and mediating ubiquitination. The activity of DTX3L is known to be modulated by at least two different factors: the concentration of NAD+, which dictates if the enzyme acts as a ligase or as an ADP-ribosyltransferase, and its binding partners, which affect DTX3L activity through yet unknown mechanisms. In light of recent findings it is possible that DTX3L could ubiquitinate ADP-ribose attached to proteins. Different DTX3L–protein complexes have been found to be part of multiple signalling pathways through which they promote the adhesion, proliferation, migration and chemoresistance of e.g. lymphoma, glioma, melanoma, and prostate cancer. In this review, we have covered the literature available for the molecular functions of DTX3L especially in the context of cancer biology, different pathways it regulates and how these relate to its function as an oncoprotein.

You do not currently have access to this content.