Cancer is a significant cause of death, precluding increasing life expectancy worldwide. That is a multifactorial disease initiated by intrinsic or extrinsic factors that induce cell differentiation into cancer cells. However, cancer development, progression, and metastasis are not controlled only by cancer cells. The entire environment around these cells, named tumor microenvironment (TME), influences tumor development and spread. The tumor microenvironment is formed by cancer cells and heterogenous nonmalignant cells integrated with a complex extracellular matrix. The main cellular components of the TME are cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), T lymphocytes, B cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), dendritic cells (DC), natural killer (NK) cells, tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs), Stem Cells, Endothelial Cells and their soluble secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) that modulate cancer cells to establish and disseminate. This review provides a recent insight into the role of EVs secreted from different populations of the TME associated with the initiation and progression of carcinoma.

You do not currently have access to this content.