The nucleotide CTP can be synthesized de novo from UTP via the metabolic enzyme CTP synthase (CTPS). As a textbook enzyme, CTPS has been extensively studied for seven decades. However, it came as a surprise when CTPS was found to form snake-shaped mesoscale cytoophidia in fruit fly cells. Since 2010, more and more studies have demonstrated that CTPS can form cytoophidia within the cells across all three domains of life. Oligomers of CTPS form filaments that are undetectable under light microscopy. This review summarizes our current understanding of cytoophidia and filaments, highlighting some basic features such as conservation, morphology and functions of the two levels of CTPS structures.

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