Cardiolipin and phosphatidylinositol along with the latter's phosphorylated derivative phosphoinositides, control a wide range of cellular functions from signal transduction, membrane traffic, mitochondrial function, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell metabolism. An emerging dimension to these lipids is the specificity of their fatty acyl chains that is remarkably distinct from that of other glycerophospholipids. Cardiolipin and phosphatidylinositol undergo acyl remodeling involving the sequential actions of phospholipase A to hydrolyze acyl chains and key acyltransferases that re-acylate with specific acyl groups. LCLAT1 (also known as LYCAT, AGPAT8, LPLAT6, or ALCAT1) is an acyltransferase that contributes to specific acyl profiles for phosphatidylinositol, phosphoinositides, and cardiolipin. As such, perturbations of LCLAT1 lead to alterations in cardiolipin-dependent phenomena such as mitochondrial respiration and dynamics and phosphoinositide-dependent processes such as endocytic membrane traffic and receptor signaling. Here we examine the biochemical and cellular actions of LCLAT1, as well as the contribution of this acyltransferase to the development and specific diseases.

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