The dysfunction of many RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that are heavily disordered, including TDP-43 and FUS, are implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD). These proteins serve many important roles in the cell, and their capacity to form biomolecular condensates (BMCs) is key to their function, but also a vulnerability that can lead to misregulation and disease. Matrin-3 (MATR3) is an intrinsically disordered RBP implicated both genetically and pathologically in ALS/FTD, though it is relatively understudied as compared with TDP-43 and FUS. In addition to binding RNA, MATR3 also binds DNA and is implicated in many cellular processes including the DNA damage response, transcription, splicing, and cell differentiation. It is unclear if MATR3 localizes to BMCs under physiological conditions, which is brought further into question due to its lack of a prion-like domain. Here, we review recent studies regarding MATR3 and its roles in numerous physiological processes, as well as its implication in a range of diseases.

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