The chemokine system plays a fundamental role in a diverse range of physiological processes, such as homeostasis and immune responses. Dysregulation in the chemokine system has been linked to inflammatory diseases and cancer, which renders chemokine receptors to be considered as therapeutic targets. In the past two decades, around 45 drugs targeting chemokine receptors have been developed, yet only three are clinically approved. The challenging factors include the limited understanding of aberrant chemokine signalling in malignant diseases, high redundancy of the chemokine system, differences between cell types and non-specific binding of the chemokine receptor antagonists due to the broad ligand-binding pockets. In recent years, emerging studies attempt to characterise the chemokine ligand–receptor interactions and the downstream signalling protein–protein interactions, aiming to fine tuning to the promiscuous interplay of the chemokine system for the development of precision medicine. This review will outline the updates on the mechanistic insights in the chemokine system and propose some potential strategies in the future development of targeted therapy.

You do not currently have access to this content.