The ABCG5/G8 heterodimer is the primary neutral sterol transporter in hepatobiliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion. Inactivating mutations on either the ABCG5 or ABCG8 subunit cause Sitosterolemia, a rare genetic disorder. In 2016, a crystal structure of human ABCG5/G8 in an apo state showed the first structural information on ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sterol transporters and revealed several structural features that were observed for the first time. Over the past decade, several missense variants of ABCG5/G8 have been associated with non-Sitosterolemia lipid phenotypes. In this review, we summarize recent pathophysiological and structural findings of ABCG5/G8, interpret the structure-function relationship in disease-causing variants and describe the available evidence that allows us to build a mechanistic view of ABCG5/G8-mediated sterol transport.