Research into the development of sustainable biomaterials is increasing in both interest and global importance due to the increasing demand for materials with decreased environmental impact. This research field utilises natural, renewable resources to develop innovative biomaterials. The development of sustainable biomaterials encompasses the entire material life cycle, from desirable traits, and environmental impact from production through to recycling or disposal. The main objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive definition of sustainable biomaterials and to give an overview of the use of natural proteins in biomaterial development. Proteins such as collagen, gelatin, keratin, and silk, are biocompatible, biodegradable, and may form materials with varying properties. Proteins, therefore, provide an intriguing source of biomaterials for numerous applications, including additive manufacturing, nanotechnology, and tissue engineering. We give an insight into current research and future directions in each of these areas, to expand knowledge on the capabilities of sustainably sourced proteins as advanced biomaterials.