The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) serves as the major posttranslational modification system for the maintenance of protein homeostasis. The ubiquitin ligases (E3s) are responsible for the recognition and recruitment of specific substrate proteins for polyubiquitination. Really interesting new gene (RING) finger E3s account for the majority of E3s. The human genome encodes more than 600 RING E3s, which are divided into three subclasses: single polypeptide E3s, cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) and other multisubunit E3s. The abnormal regulation of RING E3s has been reported to disrupt normal biological processes and induce the occurrence of many human malignancies. Glioma is the most common type of malignant primary brain tumor. In the last few decades, patient prognosis has improved as novel targeted therapeutic agents have developed. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge about the dysregulation of RING E3s and the altered stability of their substrates in glioma. We will further introduce and discuss the current status and future perspectives of the application of small inhibitors and proteolysis-targeting chimeric molecules (PROTACs) interfering with RING E3s as potential anticancer agents for glioma.
Butanol is an important chemical and potential fuel. For more than 100 years, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation of Clostridium strains has been the most successful process for biological butanol production. In recent years, other microbes have been engineered to produce butanol as well, among which Escherichia coli was the best one. Considering the crude oil price fluctuation, minimizing the cost of butanol production is of highest priority for its industrial application. Therefore, using cheaper feedstocks instead of pure sugars is an important project. In this review, we summarized butanol production from different renewable resources, such as industrial and food waste, lignocellulosic biomass, syngas and other renewable resources. This review will present the current progress in this field and provide insights for further engineering efforts on renewable butanol production.