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Keyword: cancer
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) BST20190098.
Published: 22 November 2019
...Jessica L. Chitty; Yordanos F.I. Setargew; Thomas R. Cox The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a fundamental component of tissue microenvironments and its dysregulation has been implicated in a number of diseases, in particular cancer. Tumour desmoplasia (fibrosis) accompanies the progression of many...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (5): 1471-1479.
Published: 24 September 2019
...Jong Fu Wong; Elizabeth J. Brown; Eleanor Williams; Alex N. Bullock; Alex N. Bullock Brain tumours have become the leading cause of child mortality from cancer. Indeed, aggressive brainstem tumours, such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), are nearly uniformly fatal. These tumours display...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (5): 1209-1222.
Published: 10 September 2019
...Dorota Sabat-Pośpiech; Kim Fabian-Kolpanowicz; Ian A. Prior; Judy M. Coulson; Andrew B. Fielding Due to cell-cycle dysregulation, many cancer cells contain more than the normal compliment of centrosomes, a state referred to as centrosome amplification (CA). CA can drive oncogenic phenotypes and...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (4): 997-1003.
Published: 18 July 2019
... and mammals, a pattern of global DNA hypomethylation coupled with increased methylation levels at some specific genomic regions arises at specific developmental stages and in certain abnormal cells, such as mammalian aging cells and cancer cells as well as some plant epigenetic mutants. Here we...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (2): 743-754.
Published: 22 March 2019
... )-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), an arachidonic acid metabolite, and the role that GPR31/12-HETER-mediated signals play in cancer cell growth, invasion and metastasis, and in liver ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury. Recent studies shed light and interest on the 12( S )-HETE/GPR31/12-HETER-activated signaling pathways...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (2): 725-732.
Published: 08 March 2019
... tumour cells (heterotypic) or immune cells inside tumour cells (heterotypic). CIC formation can occur in cell lines and in tissues and it has been most frequently observed during inflammation and in cancers. Over the past 10 years, many researchers have studied CIC structures and a few different models...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (2): 559-569.
Published: 08 March 2019
...Ian J. Majewski The theory of evolution by natural selection shapes our understanding of the living world. While natural selection has given rise to all the intricacies of life on the planet, those responsible for treating cancer have a darker view of adaptation and selection. Revolutionary...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (6): 1449-1462.
Published: 22 November 2018
... transcription) and other signalling pathways are activated as a consequence. Of translational relevance, overexpression of IL-6 has been documented in several neoplastic disorders, including but not limited to colorectal, ovarian and breast cancer and several haematological malignancies. This review attempts to...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (6): 1517-1527.
Published: 12 November 2018
...Annalisa Contursi; Rosalia Grande; Melania Dovizio; Annalisa Bruno; Rosa Fullone; Paola Patrignani Platelets are involved in the development and progression of cancer through several mechanisms. Platelet activation at the site of tissue damage contributes to the initiation of a cascade of events...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (6): 1681-1695.
Published: 12 November 2018
... understanding of these pathways has provided some major breakthroughs in the treatment of human cancer. Correspondence: Luca Palazzo ( l.palazzo@ibp.cnr.it ) or Ivan Ahel ( ivan.ahel@path.ox.ac.uk ) 26 7 2018 15 9 2018 21 9 2018 © 2018 The Author(s) 2018 This is an open access...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (5): 1325-1332.
Published: 04 October 2018
...Stephanie P. Mo; Judy M. Coulson; Ian A. Prior RAS proteins are small GTPases that regulate signalling networks that control cellular proliferation and survival. They are frequently mutated in cancer and a commonly occurring group of developmental disorders called RASopathies. We discuss recent...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (5): 1213-1224.
Published: 04 October 2018
... endogenous processes is probably far more prevalent. That said, epidemiological studies of migrant populations from regions of low cancer risk to high cancer risk countries point to a role for environmental and/or lifestyle factors playing a pivotal part in cancer aetiology. One might reasonably surmise from...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (5): 1303-1311.
Published: 28 August 2018
...Atanu Chakraborty; Emily Linnane; Sarah Ross Oncogenic mutations in RAS genes underlie the pathogenesis of many human tumours, and there has been intense effort for over 30 years to develop effective and tolerated targeted therapeutics for patients with Ras-driven cancers. This review summarises...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (3): 761-771.
Published: 05 June 2018
... 4 2018 © 2018 The Author(s) 2018 This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY) . cancer casein kinase CK1 FAM83 PLD Wnt proteins The...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (3): 659-668.
Published: 21 May 2018
...Joyce Taylor-Papadimitriou; Joy M. Burchell; Rosalind Graham; Richard Beatson Currently, there is renewed interest in attempting to recruit the host immune system to eliminate cancers, and within this renewed activity, MUC1 continues to arouse interest. MUC1 has been considered a possible...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (2): 207-215.
Published: 22 February 2018
..., or by protecting the lysosomal membrane, thereby stabilizing the organelle. Lysosomal alterations are common in cancer cells and may increase the sensitivity of these cells to agents that promote LMP. In this review, we summarize recent findings supporting the use of LDCD as a means of killing cancer...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (1): 77-95.
Published: 22 December 2017
..., highlighting the importance of these enzymes. Moreover, mono-allelic RecQ and Fe–S helicase mutations are associated with a broad spectrum of cancers. This review will discuss and contrast the specialized molecular functions and biological roles of RecQ and Fe–S helicases in DNA repair, the replication stress...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (6): 1333-1344.
Published: 17 November 2017
...Andrea Rizzotto; Eric C. Schirmer Nuclear size normally scales with the size of the cell, but in cancer this ‘karyoplasmic ratio’ is disrupted. This is particularly so in more metastatic tumors where changes in the karyoplasmic ratio are used in both diagnosis and prognosis for several tumor types...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (5): 1125-1136.
Published: 12 September 2017
... 100 deubiquitylase enzymes (DUBs) are assigned to six subfamilies and many of these DUBs can remove ubiquitin from proteins to reverse signals. Roles for individual DUBs have been delineated within specific cellular processes, including many that are dysregulated in diseases, particularly cancer. As...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (4): 963-977.
Published: 14 July 2017
... of G-protein-coupled receptors. P-Rex1 and P-Rex2 share similar amino acid sequence homology, domain structure, and catalytic function. Recent evidence suggests that both P-Rex proteins may play oncogenic roles in human cancers. P-Rex1 and P-Rex2 are altered predominantly via overexpression and...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (4): 855-870.
Published: 03 July 2017
... angiogenesis and invasiveness, and tumor metastasis in many types of cancer, leading to the rapid growth of pathway-targeted anticancer drug development programs. We review here HGF and Met structure and function, basic properties of HGF/Met pathway antagonists now in clinical development, and recent clinical...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (4): 895-904.
Published: 03 July 2017
... expression in diverse ways and has been involved in a large variety of important biological functions. Importantly, an increasing number of lncRNAs have also been associated with a range of human diseases, including cancer. Comparative analyses of their functions among these organisms suggest that some of...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (3): 805-812.
Published: 15 June 2017
... regulatory molecules involved in various cellular processes and their dysregulation in various human diseases. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the functions and underlying mechanisms of lncRNA activity with a particular focus on cancer biology. We also discuss the potential of lncRNAs as...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (2): 457-464.
Published: 13 April 2017
... molecule as a drug target for cancer therapy. Current understanding attributes a survival role for ROR1 in cancer cells; however, its oncogenic function is cancer-type-specific and involves various signaling pathways. High interest in ROR1-targeted therapies resulted in the development of ROR1 monoclonal...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (1): 27-36.
Published: 15 February 2017
...Coralie Dorard; Georg Vucak; Manuela Baccarini The RAS/ERK pathway has been intensely studied for about three decades, not least because of its role in human pathologies. ERK activation is observed in the majority of human cancers; in about one-third of them, it is driven by mutational activation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (1): 51-64.
Published: 15 February 2017
...-coding RNAs supports tumour progression is poorly understood. Here, we review new lines of evidence linking long and short types of non-coding RNAs to signalling pathways activated in the course of cancer progression by growth factors and by the tumour micro-environment. Resolving the new dimension of...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (1): 1-13.
Published: 15 February 2017
...Subramanian Venkatesan; Nicolai J. Birkbak; Charles Swanton; Charles Swanton Next-generation deep genome sequencing has only recently allowed us to quantitatively dissect the extent of heterogeneity within a tumour, resolving patterns of cancer evolution. Intratumour heterogeneity and natural...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (1): 79-88.
Published: 15 February 2017
...Galina Semenova; Jonathan Chernoff p21-Activated kinase 1 (PAK1) has attracted much attention as a potential therapeutic target due to its central role in many oncogenic signaling pathways, its frequent dysregulation in cancers and neurological disorders, and its tractability as a target for small...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (5): 1305-1312.
Published: 19 October 2016
...Teresa Rubio; Maja Köhn The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL)-3 is overexpressed in many human cancer types and tumor metastases when compared with healthy tissues. Different pathways and mechanisms have been suggested to modulate PRL-3 expression levels and activity, giving some valuable...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (5): 1499-1505.
Published: 19 October 2016
...Michelle Potter; Emma Newport; Karl J. Morten Influential research by Warburg and Cori in the 1920s ignited interest in how cancer cells' energy generation is different from that of normal cells. They observed high glucose consumption and large amounts of lactate excretion from cancer cells...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (5): 1441-1454.
Published: 19 October 2016
... of TGF-β signaling results in disruption of normal homeostatic processes and subsequent carcinogenesis, defining the TGF-β signaling pathway as a tumor suppressor. However, once carcinogenesis is initiated, the TGF-β signaling pathway promotes cancer progression. This dichotomous function of the TGF...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (5): 1347-1354.
Published: 19 October 2016
... will summarise what is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating ECM endocytosis and how this process impacts on diseases, such as fibrosis and cancer. Correspondence: Elena Rainero ( e.rainero@sheffield.ac.uk ) 6 6 2016 28 7 2016 1 8 2016 © 2016 The Author(s); published...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (5): 1265-1271.
Published: 19 October 2016
...Robert F. Shearer; Darren N. Saunders Primary cilia form at the surface of most vertebrate cell types, where they are essential signalling antennae for signal transduction pathways important for development and cancer, including Hedgehog. The importance of primary cilia in development is clearly...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (4): 1051-1057.
Published: 15 August 2016
... Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2016 cancer cell proliferation gene expression mRNA biogenesis polyadenylation post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression The closely coupled cleavage and polyadenylation reactions are key steps...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (4): 1117-1134.
Published: 15 August 2016
... cancers and cancer stages. Although early studies implicated BMP signalling in tumour suppressive phenotypes, the results of more recent experiments recognize BMPs as potent tumour promoters. Many of these complexities are becoming illuminated by understanding the role of BMPs in their contextual role in...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (2): 631-637.
Published: 11 April 2016
...Marc Poirot; Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Dendrogenin A (DDA) is the first steroidal alkaloid (SA) to be identified in human tissues to date and arises from the stereoselective enzymatic conjugation of 5,6α-epoxycholesterol (5,6α-EC) with histamine (HA). DDA induces the re-differentiation of cancer...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (2): 333-341.
Published: 11 April 2016
...Daniela Achkova; John Maher Cancer cells employ a variety of mechanisms to evade apoptosis and senescence. Pre-eminent among these is the aberrant co-expression of growth factors and their ligands, forming an autocrine growth loop that promotes tumour formation and progression. One growth loop...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (2): 349-355.
Published: 11 April 2016
...Lynsey M. Whilding; Sabari Vallath; John Maher Immunotherapy of cancer using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells is a rapidly expanding field. CARs are fusion molecules that couple the binding of a tumour-associated cell surface target to the delivery of a tailored T-cell activating signal. Re...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (1): 273-278.
Published: 09 February 2016
... our understanding of its localization and regulation by ubiquitination and SUMOylation. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email n.r.leslie@hw.ac.uk ). 26 11 2015 © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited 2016 AKT cancer phosphatase phosphoinositide 3...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1227-1233.
Published: 27 November 2015
... translationally up-regulated. Such mRNAs have been shown to possess longer and more structured 5′-UTRs requiring high levels of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) helicase activity for efficient translation. As such there is a developing focus on targeting eIF4A as a cancer therapy. In order for such...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (5): 1049-1050.
Published: 09 October 2015
...Endre Kiss-Toth; Guillermo Velasco; Warren S. Pear 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email e.kiss-toth@sheffield.ac.uk ) . 2 6 2015 © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited 2015 cancer lipids metabolism signalling tribbles ubiquitin...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (5): 937-942.
Published: 09 October 2015
... differ between undifferentiated stem or tumour cells and differentiated cells suggesting a possible link to tumorigenesis. In this mini-review, we discuss the available information about the role of ABCD transporters in cancer. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email viktor.hlavac...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (5): 1089-1094.
Published: 09 October 2015
... (TRIB2) mammalian family member has been well characterized for its role in murine and human leukaemia, lung and liver cancer. One of the most characterized substrates for TRIB2-mediated degradation is the myeloid transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα). However, across a number of...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (4): 639-644.
Published: 03 August 2015
...Dionysios V. Chartoumpekis; Nobunao Wakabayashi; Thomas W. Kensler Cancer cells adapt their metabolism to their increased needs for energy and substrates for protein, lipid and nucleic acid synthesis. Nuclear erythroid factor 2-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway is usually activated in cancers and has been...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (4): 645-649.
Published: 03 August 2015
... expression of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes, has a pivotal role in cancer. Cancer cells are able to hijack the Keap1–Nrf2 system via multiple mechanisms leading to enhanced chemo- and radio-resistance and proliferation via metabolic reprogramming as well as inhibition of apoptosis. In this mini-review, we...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (1): 23-32.
Published: 26 January 2015
... failure and as a consequence the ploidy status of the next generation of cells is changed. Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) is observed in many human cancers, but whether this may be caused by deregulation of the CPC is unknown. In the present review, we discuss if and how a dysfunctional CPC...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (1): 117-121.
Published: 26 January 2015
... cytoskeleton dynamics with vesicle trafficking during cytokinesis are poorly understood. The highly conserved Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3), functions as a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) effector at the Golgi. Recent studies have suggested that GOLPH3 is up-regulated in several cancers and is...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (6): 1543-1549.
Published: 17 November 2014
... specific substrates and play a pivotal role in the regulation of various cell functions, including metabolism, growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Therefore they represent an interesting molecular target for the treatment of several diseases, such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Adopting a structure...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (6): 1658-1664.
Published: 17 November 2014
...David M. Favara; Alison H. Banham; Adrian L. Harris Epidermal growth factor, latrophilin and seven-transmembrane domain-containing 1 (ELTD1), an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) belonging to the adhesion GPCR family, has recently been identified as a potential cancer biomarker and a novel...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (6): 1744-1751.
Published: 17 November 2014
... To whom correspondence should be addressed (email graham.pockley@ntu.ac.uk ). 11 8 2014 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2014 Biochemical Society 2014 biomarker cancer cell stress protein enzyme immunoassay heat-shock protein molecular chaperone The technician...