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Keyword: chromatin
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) BST20180496.
Published: 26 November 2019
... SAGA and NuA4/TIP60 complex assembly and recruitment to chromatin. We further discuss its evolutionary history within the PIKK family and highlight recent findings that reveal the importance of molecular chaperones in pseudokinase folding, function, and conservation. Correspondence: Dominique...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (2): 713-724.
Published: 05 April 2019
... depend on other factors such as DNA methylation, the presence of particular histone variants and post-translational modifications of histones. Collectively, factors that modify DNA or affect its packaging and accessibility contribute to a chromatin landscape that helps to control the timely expression of...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (2): 691-700.
Published: 22 March 2019
...Caroline Delandre; Owen J. Marshall The organisation of DNA into differing forms of packaging, or chromatin, controls many of the cell fate decisions during development. Although early studies focused on individual forms of chromatin, in the last decade more holistic studies have attempted to...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 425-432.
Published: 07 February 2019
... haploid genome. Faithful chromosome segregation is thus crucial, as is an ordered spatio-temporal ‘dance’ of packing a large amount of chromatin into a very small space. Ergo, when the process goes wrong, this is associated with an improper chromosome number, nuclear position and/or chromatin damage in...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (6): 1423-1430.
Published: 22 November 2018
...Somnath Paul; Blaine Bartholomew All ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers have a DNA translocase domain that moves along double-stranded DNA when hydrolyzing ATP, which is the key action leading to DNA moving through nucleosomes. Recent structural and biochemical data from a variety of different...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (3): 491-501.
Published: 06 April 2018
... Author(s). 2018 This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND) . chromatin chromatin conformation capture epigenomics structural analysis...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (1): 173-182.
Published: 06 February 2018
... Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY) . chromatin nuclear envelopes nucleus protein phosphatases In higher eukaryotes, the nucleus is heavily remodelled during mitosis; this leads to the formation of...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (1): 67-76.
Published: 20 December 2017
... contributions of the 10-nm chromatin fiber, but not the regular 30-nm fiber. We hypothesize that the hierarchical globular organization of an interphase chromosome is fundamentally established by the self-interacting properties of a 10-nm zig-zag array of nucleosomes, while histone post-translational...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (2): 323-338.
Published: 13 April 2017
...Maïté Leturcq; Tony Lefebvre; Anne-Sophie Vercoutter-Edouart Post-translational modifications of histones and the dynamic DNA methylation cycle are finely regulated by a myriad of chromatin-binding factors and chromatin-modifying enzymes. Epigenetic modifications ensure local changes in the...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1634-1639.
Published: 20 November 2013
...Alejandro Rodriguez; Pernilla Bjerling During the last few years, there has been a rapid increase in our knowledge of how chromatin is organized inside the nucleus. Techniques such as FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) have proved that chromosomes organize themselves in so-called CTs...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1640-1647.
Published: 20 November 2013
...Punit Prasad; Karl Ekwall Eukaryotic chromatin is remodelled by the evolutionarily conserved Snf2 family of enzymes in an ATP-dependent manner. Several Snf2 enzymes are part of CRCs (chromatin remodelling complexes). In the present review we focus our attention on the functions of Snf2 enzymes and...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 727-740.
Published: 23 May 2013
...Hannah K. Long; Neil P. Blackledge; Robert J. Klose Vertebrate DNA can be chemically modified by methylation of the 5 position of the cytosine base in the context of CpG dinucleotides. This modification creates a binding site for MBD (methyl-CpG-binding domain) proteins which target chromatin...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 797-801.
Published: 23 May 2013
... mechanisms which define and maintain β-cell identity. The advent of genome-wide analyses of chromatin modifications has highlighted the role of epigenetic factors in determining cell identity. There is also evidence from both human populations and animal models for an epigenetic component in susceptibility...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 789-796.
Published: 23 May 2013
... correspondence should be addressed (email llewelyn.roderick@babraham.ac.uk ). 1 2 2013 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 Biochemical Society 2013 cardiac hypertrophy chromatin epigenetics histone histone methylation The mammalian heart is a remarkable organ that, by its...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 761-768.
Published: 23 May 2013
...Geoff Gudavicius; Heddy Soufari; Santosh Upadhyay; Cameron D. Mackereth; Christopher J. Nelson Peptidylprolyl isomerases have been implicated in chromatin regulation through their association with histones, chromatin-modifying enzymes and DNA-binding transcription factors. As with other post...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 777-782.
Published: 23 May 2013
...) ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ ) which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. cell cycle chromatin chromodomain helicase DNA-binding 4 (CHD4) DNA damage DNA repair nucleosome remodelling and...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (2): 548-553.
Published: 21 March 2013
...Andrew A. Travers; Georgi Muskhelishvili How much information is encoded in the DNA sequence of an organism? We argue that the informational, mechanical and topological properties of DNA are interdependent and act together to specify the primary characteristics of genetic organization and chromatin...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (2): 491-493.
Published: 21 March 2013
... ( andrzej.stasiak@unil.ch ). 24 1 2013 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 Biochemical Society 2013 catenane chromatin chromosome DNA knot protein folding recombinase supercoiling topoisomerase The structure and function of DNA and proteins are affected by the topology of the...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (1): 321-325.
Published: 29 January 2013
...Rosalie P.C. Driessen; Remus Th. Dame Crenarchaeal genomes are organized into a compact nucleoid by a set of small chromatin proteins. Although there is little knowledge of chromatin structure in Archaea, similarities between crenarchaeal and bacterial chromatin proteins suggest that organization...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (2): 347-350.
Published: 21 March 2012
...Timothy J. Richmond Nucleosomes are actively positioned along DNA by ATP-dependent, chromatin remodelling factors. A structural model for the ISW1a chromatin remodelling factor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in complex with a dinucleosome substrate was constructed from the X-ray structures of ISW1a...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (2): 335-340.
Published: 21 March 2012
...Andrew A. Travers; Cédric Vaillant; Alain Arneodo; Georgi Muskhelishvili A major question in chromatin biology is to what extent the sequence of DNA directly determines the genetic and chromatin organization of a eukaryotic genome? We consider two aspects to this question: the DNA sequence...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (2): 351-356.
Published: 21 March 2012
...Song Tan The nucleosome repeating unit of chromatin is the target of chromatin enzymes and factors that regulate gene activity in a eukaryotic cell. How the nucleosome is recognized by chromatin enzymes and factors is poorly understood, even though such interaction is fundamental to gene regulation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (2): 370-376.
Published: 21 March 2012
... chromatin and therefore the true in vivo substrate of damaged DNA occurs within the context of chromatin. Our work aims to decipher the mechanisms by which cells detect DNA damage and signal its presence to the DNA-repair and cell-cycle machineries. In particular, much of our work has focused on DNA DSBs...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (2): 377-382.
Published: 21 March 2012
..., arguing for active packing of nucleosomes against the 5′ ends of genes rather than statistical positioning. A first extract fractionation identified a direct, specific, necessary, but not sufficient role for the RSC (remodels the structure of chromatin) remodelling enzyme. Collectively, nucleosome...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (6): 1725-1728.
Published: 21 November 2011
... cytoskeletal activities. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email noegel@uni-koeln.de ). 22 7 2011 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society 2011 α-catenin chromatin laminopathy linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex (LINC complex) nesprin...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (6): 1705-1709.
Published: 21 November 2011
..., providing a potential mechanism for how these mutations lead to tissue-specific diseases. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email gru@vms.huji.ac.il ). 10 5 2011 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society 2011 Caenorhabditis elegans chromatin DNA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (1): 116-121.
Published: 19 January 2011
... which they modulate the genome do seem to be functionally conserved across kingdoms. On a generic level, architectural proteins can be classified based on their structural effect as DNA benders, DNA bridgers or DNA wrappers. Although chromatin organization in archaea has not been studied extensively...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (4): 1077-1081.
Published: 26 July 2010
... -acting regulators of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation. FCA and FPA directly associate with chromatin at the locus encoding the floral repressor FLC, but appear to control FLC transcription by mediating alternative polyadenylation of embedded non-coding antisense RNAs. These findings prompt the re...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (2): 598-603.
Published: 22 March 2010
... paucity of paternal effects. However, as more is known about molecular expression of chromatin-modifying proteins, ubiquitin pathway proteins and transcription factors in sperm cells, as well as their ability to achieve effect by intaglio expression, passing transcripts directly into translation, the role...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 301-306.
Published: 19 January 2010
...@meduniwien.ac.at ). 29 10 2009 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Biochemical Society 2010 cell proliferation chromatin lamin mitosis nuclear assembly nuclear envelope Lamins are nuclear IF (intermediate filament) proteins that, like all IF proteins, contain a central α...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 619-624.
Published: 22 July 2008
... cellular control of Pol I transcription involves adjustments to the number of rRNA genes actively engaged in transcription, as well as to the rate of transcription from each active gene. Chromatin structure is inextricably linked to rRNA gene activity, and the present review highlights recent advances in...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (6): 1519-1524.
Published: 23 November 2007
...A.L. Chambers; J.A. Downs The cellular response to DNA damage involves extensive interaction with and manipulation of chromatin. This includes the detection and repair of the DNA lesion, but there are also transcriptional responses to DNA damage, involving the up- or down-regulation of numerous...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (6): 1138-1140.
Published: 25 October 2006
... 7 2006 © 2006 The Biochemical Society 2006 atrial natriuretic peptide brain natriuretic peptide cardiac hypertrophy chromatin gene expression repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST) Studies examining the regulation of the genes encoding BNP (brain...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (6): 913-915.
Published: 26 October 2004
... expression chromatin CpG island DNA methylation imprinting X-chromosome inactivation Methylation at the 5′ position of cytosine residues that form part of CpG dinucleotides is the only commonly occurring covalent modification of DNA and approx. 70% of the CpG sites in the human genome are...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (6): 918-919.
Published: 26 October 2004
...K.L. West HMGN (high-mobility-group N) family members are vertebrate proteins that unfold chromatin and promote transcription and replication of chromatin templates in vitro . However, their precise roles in vivo have been elusive until recently. This paper summarizes recent advances from studies...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (6): 899-903.
Published: 26 October 2004
...K.K. Lee; P. Prochasson; L. Florens; S.K. Swanson; M.P. Washburn; J.L. Workman Epigenetics is the alteration of phenotype without affecting the genotype. An underlying molecular mechanism of epigenetics is the changes of chromatin structure by covalent histone modifications and nucleosome...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (5): 893-905.
Published: 01 October 2003
...T. Owen-Hughes The alteration of chromatin structure plays an integral role in gene regulation. One means by which eukaryotes manipulate chromatin structure involves the use of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling enzymes. It appears likely that these enzymes play a widespread role in the regulation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (4): 741-743.
Published: 01 August 2003
...T. Kouzarides In recent years, our view of how gene expression is controlled has changed dramatically. The discovery of enzymes that modify histones has revealed that transcription is an enzymically driven process. Such modifications can recruit specific proteins and mediate chromatin changes that...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (3): 690-693.
Published: 01 June 2003
...-mail mfw2@st-and.ac.uk Molecular Mechanisms and Manipulation in Archaea, a Biochemical Society-sponsored meeting held at The University of Nottingham, 30–31 January 2003 18 January 2003 © 2003 Biochemical Society 2003 Archaea chromatin DNA repair nucleotide excision repair...