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Keyword: endoplasmic reticulum
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (3): 699–706.
Published: 25 May 2018
...Marisa Loi; Ilaria Fregno; Concetta Guerra; Maurizio Molinari The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of protein, lipid, phospholipid, steroid and oligosaccharide synthesis and modification, calcium ion storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous products. Its volume (and activity...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (2): 437–452.
Published: 27 March 2018
... to maintain a defined protein and lipid composition in both their membranes. The maintenance of mitochondrial membrane identity requires a selective and regulated transport of specific lipids from/to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and across the mitochondria outer and inner membranes. Since they are...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (6): 1323–1331.
Published: 17 November 2017
... article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND) . autophagy endoplasmic reticulum trafficking Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process that contributes to cellular...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (2): 467–473.
Published: 11 April 2016
...Eamonn J. Dickson; Jill B. Jensen; Bertil Hille Effective cellular function requires both compartmentalization of tasks in space and time, and coordination of those efforts. The endoplasmic reticulum's (ER) expansive and ramifying structure makes it ideally suited to serve as a regulatory platform...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (2): 499–504.
Published: 11 April 2016
...Alexander R. van Vliet; Patrizia Agostinis The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main hub of cellular Ca 2+ signalling and protein synthesis and folding. The ER moreover is the central player in the formation of contact sites with other organelles and structures, including mitochondria, plasma...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (2): 546–553.
Published: 11 April 2016
... IP 3 receptor (IP 3 R) on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A less understood, parallel Ca 2+ signalling cascade is that involving the messenger nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) that couples to Ca 2+ release from acidic Ca 2+ stores [e.g. endo-lysosomes, secretory vesicles...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (2): 493–498.
Published: 11 April 2016
... complexes. STARD3 [StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein)-related lipid transfer domain-3] and its close paralogue STARD3NL (STARD3 N-terminal like) are involved in the formation of contacts between late-endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The lipid transfer protein (LTP) STARD3 and...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (2): 425–430.
Published: 11 April 2016
... organellar architecture during the transfer process. Even though the molecular compositions of membrane contact sites are diverse, it is striking that several of these sites, including contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and endosomes, Golgi and the plasma membrane (PM), and contact sites...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (1): 197–201.
Published: 09 February 2016
... (PtdIns) via sequential phosphorylation by PtdIns 4-kinases and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) 5-kinases. Since PtdIns is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and PtdIns(4,5)P 2 is generated in the PM, it has been postulated that PtdIns transfer proteins (PITPs) provide the means for...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (5): 1335–1342.
Published: 18 September 2014
... (email banafshe.larijani@ikerbasque.org or dlpoccia@amherst.edu ) . 14 8 2014 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2014 Biochemical Society 2014 diacylglycerol endoplasmic reticulum membrane fusion nuclear envelope phosphoinositide In recent years, cell and developmental...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 905–908.
Published: 11 August 2014
... the endoplasmic reticulum: too reducing and disulfides will not form, too oxidizing and non-native disulfides will not be resolved. How the endoplasmic reticulum maintains the correct redox balance is unknown. Although we have a good appreciation of the processes leading to a more oxidizing...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (1): 63–70.
Published: 23 January 2014
... Biochemical Society 2014 calcium signalling cAMP endoplasmic reticulum inositol 1 4 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP 3 receptor) lysosome ryanodine receptor Thirty years ago, and in the face of a commonly held belief that mitochondria were the major intracellular Ca 2+ stores, IP 3...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (6): 1348–1352.
Published: 21 November 2012
... the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) to create a replicating niche called the BCV ( Brucella -containing vacuole). The ER is a suitable strategic place for pathogenic Brucella . Indeed, bacteria can be hidden from host cell defences to persist within the host, and they can take advantage of the membrane...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (1): 112–118.
Published: 19 January 2012
...Wei-Wei Shen; Nicolas Demaurex The SOCE (store-operated Ca 2+ entry) pathway is a central component of cell signalling that links the Ca 2+ -filling state of the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) to the activation of Ca 2+ -permeable channels at the PM (plasma membrane). SOCE channels maintain a high free...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (5): 1544–1548.
Published: 21 September 2011
... Aspergillus nidulans cell death endoplasmic reticulum farnesol reactive oxygen species (ROS) FOH (farnesol), a non-sterol isoprenoid produced by dephosphorylation of farnesyl pyrophosphate, has been shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in neoplastic cell lines and also to be...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1537–1542.
Published: 24 November 2010
... endoplasmic reticulum, follow the same pattern. By using a series of chimaeric transcripts, we have demonstrated that transcript localization at the endoplasmic reticulum bypasses the signals dictating stress granule sequestration. Polysome profile analyses and protein synthesis experiments indicate that...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (3): 747–753.
Published: 24 May 2010
...Lawrence R. Griffing The network of the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) is set up by cytoskeletal control of the movement and remodelling of polygonal rings of tubules, bundles of tubules and cisternal regions. We have developed a new image analysis tool, persistency mapping, to understand the framework...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (3): 755–760.
Published: 24 May 2010
... wall endoplasmic reticulum Golgi body microtubule plant The woody secondary walls of plants provide the mechanical stability for upward growth while permitting the plant to withstand considerable external forces that would otherwise lead to lodging and breakage. In mature xylem vessels, the...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (6): 1399–1403.
Published: 19 November 2009
... should be addressed (email marie.ohman@molbio.su.se ). 4 8 2009 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2009 Biochemical Society 2009 adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA (ADAR) central nervous system (CNS) endoplasmic reticulum γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA A receptor...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (5): 961–965.
Published: 21 September 2009
...Becky Bola; Viki Allan The ER (endoplasmic reticulum) is a fascinating organelle that is highly dynamic, undergoing constant movement and reorganization. It has many key roles, including protein synthesis, folding and trafficking, calcium homoeostasis and lipid synthesis. It can expand in size when...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 970–973.
Published: 25 October 2007
...B. Nyfeler; H.-P. Hauri The ER (endoplasmic reticulum) is a major protein folding and modification organelle. In its lumen, the ER processes a third of all newly synthesized proteins. To accomplish this task, numerous resident proteins capture the nascent and newly synthesized proteins. The...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (1): 96–100.
Published: 22 January 2007
... signalling endoplasmic reticulum regulatory protein complex store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) Cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration [Ca 2+ ] i (intracellular Ca 2+ concentration), and more specifically regulated increases in [Ca 2+ ] i control a...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 910–912.
Published: 25 October 2006
... addressed (email cwt1000@cam.ac.uk ). 19 6 2006 © 2006 The Biochemical Society 2006 endoplasmic reticulum inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP 3 receptor) patch–clamp recording plasma membrane protein targeting store-operated Ca 2+ entry Three vertebrate genes and...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 922–926.
Published: 25 October 2006
... the relatively well-characterized IP 3 and ryanodine receptors. Furthermore, in the sea urchin egg, the NAADP-sensitive store appears to be separate from the endoplasmic reticulum and is most likely an acidic store. These findings have also been reinforced by similar findings in mammalian cells, and a...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (3): 359–362.
Published: 22 May 2006
... pathways moves exogenous sterols from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . We have found that two classes of proteins play critical roles in this transport, ABC transporters (ATP-binding-cassette transporters) and oxysterol-binding protein-related...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (3): 404–408.
Published: 22 May 2006
...J.-Y. Choi; W.R. Riekhof; W.-I. Wu; D.R. Voelker PtdSer (phosphatidylserine) is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and the related MAM (mitochondria-associated membrane), and transported to the PtdSer decarboxylases, Pds1p in the mitochondria, and Psd2p in the Golgi. Genetic and biochemical...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (3): 395–398.
Published: 22 May 2006
... by photosynthesis. Lipid biosynthetic enzymes of different subcellular compartments participate in the biogenesis of the thylakoid membrane system. This process requires the extensive exchange of lipid precursors between the chloroplast and the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The underlying lipid...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (3): 385–388.
Published: 22 May 2006
... calcium store is the ER (endoplasmic reticulum): the spatial organization of the ER during mitosis is important in defining a microdomain around the nucleus and mitotic spindle in early Drosophila embryos [Parry, McDougall and Whitaker (2005) J. Cell Biol. 171 , 47–59]. Nuclear divisions in syncytial...
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (3): 351–355.
Published: 22 May 2006
...G.A. Rutter A number of studies in recent years have demonstrated that the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) makes intimate contacts with mitochondria, the latter organelles existing both as individual organelles and occasionally as a more extensive interconnected network. Demonstrations that mitochondria...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (3): 367–369.
Published: 22 May 2006
...H. Riezman Sphingolipids are important signalling molecules and thus it is very important to understand how they are generated. Sphingolipid biosynthesis shows a conserved compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells. Their synthesis begins in the endoplasmic reticulum and is completed in the Golgi...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (3): 356–358.
Published: 22 May 2006
...D.P. Sullivan; H. Ohvo-Rekilä; N.A. Baumann; C.T. Beh; A.K. Menon We recently showed that transport of ergosterol from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) to the sterol-enriched PM (plasma membrane) in yeast occurs by a non-vesicular (Sec18p-independent) mechanism that results in the equilibration of...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (5): 1016–1018.
Published: 26 October 2005
... VSS and possible implications with respect to the working model for transport to storage vacuoles are discussed. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email l.frigerio@warwick.ac.uk ). 1 7 2005 © 2005 The Biochemical Society 2005 dense vesicle endoplasmic reticulum...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (5): 655–658.
Published: 26 October 2004
...C.E. Jessop; S. Chakravarthi; R.H. Watkins; N.J. Bulleid Native disulphide bonds are essential for the structure and function of many membrane and secretory proteins. Disulphide bonds are formed, reduced and isomerized in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells by a family of oxidoreductases...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (5): 663–667.
Published: 26 October 2004
...L. Ellgaard Disulphide bonds are critical for the maturation and stability of secretory and cell-surface proteins. In eukaryotic cells, disulphide bonds are introduced in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), where the redox conditions are optimal to support their formation. Yet, the correct pairing of...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (3): 524–528.
Published: 01 June 2004
.... These included citrate synthase, which is known to be targeted to mitochondria, peroxisomes and glyoxysomes, and luminal binding protein, which is an ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-resident protein. Searches of the Arabidopsis database revealed that there are several genes encoding putative citrate synthase...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (6): 1253–1256.
Published: 01 December 2003
...A.V. Nikonov; G. Kreibich Protein translocation in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and N-glycosylation are fundamental processes essential for the normal functioning of eukaryotic cells. They are the initial steps in the intracellular pathway that are followed by secretory proteins and membrane...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (6): 1257–1259.
Published: 01 December 2003
... recognition. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (e-mail neil.bulleid@man.ac.uk ). 679th Meeting of the Biochemical Society held at the University of Essex, Colchester, 2–4 July 2003 5 June 2003 © 2003 Biochemical Society 2003 endoplasmic reticulum...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (6): 1260–1262.
Published: 01 December 2003
... processes. In the case of ricin, the process inhibited is protein synthesis. In order to reach their cytosolic substrates, several toxins undergo retrograde transport to the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) before translocating across the ER membrane. To achieve this export, these toxins exploit the ERAD (ER...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (6): 1232–1237.
Published: 01 December 2003
...M.R. Pool Co-translational protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum requires the signal-recognition particle, its cognate receptor and the translocation channel. Co-ordination of the targeting process necessitates the interaction of these components with each other and with the ribosome...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (6): 1238–1242.
Published: 01 December 2003
... tail-anchored proteins translocate their C-termini across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by a mechanism different from that used for Sec61-dependent post-translational signal-peptide-driven translocation. Here we summarize recent results on the insertion of tail-anchored proteins and discuss...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (6): 1243–1247.
Published: 01 December 2003
...B. Martoglio Signal sequences are the addresses of proteins destined for secretion. In eukaryotic cells, they mediate targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and insertion into the translocon. Thereafter, signal sequences are cleaved from the pre-protein and liberated into the endoplasmic...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (4): 885–888.
Published: 01 August 2003
.... While these interactions have been most thoroughly studied with respect to the receptor at the synapse, the same proteins may also interact with the receptor much earlier in its biosynthetic pathway and play important roles in receptor trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the synapse. 1 To...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (4): 875–879.
Published: 01 August 2003
...K. Bollan; L.A. Robertson; H. Tang; C.N. Connolly Mammalian γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A ) receptors are constructed from a large repertoire of subunits (α1–α6, β1–β3, γ1–γ3, δ, ∊, θ and π) into a pentameric ion channel. GABA A receptor assembly occurs within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2001) 29 (4): 461–467.
Published: 01 August 2001
... three dimensions at ~ 6 nm resolution. Rapid freezing, freeze-substitution and electron tomography were employed. The Golgi in this region is composed of seven cisternae. The cis -most element is structurally intermediate between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and...