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Keyword: insulin
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (1): 111-118.
Published: 12 January 2018
...Francis B. Stephens; Francis B. Stephens; Kostas Tsintzas The molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying the increase in insulin sensitivity (i.e. increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake, phosphorylation and storage as glycogen) observed from 12 to 48 h following a single...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (6): 1271-1277.
Published: 03 November 2017
... particular emphasis on the insulin-stimulated delivery of glucose transporters to the surface of adipose and muscle cells. Here, we focus on a few examples of SNARE phosphorylation which exemplify distinct ways in which SNARE machinery phosphorylation may regulate membrane fusion. Correspondence: Gwyn...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (1): 293-298.
Published: 09 February 2016
... insulin and glucagon. When this co-ordinated effort fails, hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia develops, characterizing a state of metabolic imbalance and ultimately overt diabetes. Although diabetes is most likely a collection of diseases, scientists are starting to identify genetic components and...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (5): 1396-1400.
Published: 18 September 2014
...Dimitrios Kioumourtzoglou; Jessica B.A. Sadler; Hannah L. Black; Rebecca Berends; Cassie Wellburn; Nia J. Bryant; Gwyn W. Gould Insulin plays a fundamental role in whole-body glucose homeostasis. Central to this is the hormone's ability to rapidly stimulate the rate of glucose transport into...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (5): 1323-1326.
Published: 21 September 2011
...Youshang Zhang Insulin has been extensively studied since it was discovered by Banting and Best in 1921. Early in 1934, Dorothy Crowfoot and John Desmond Bernal obtained the first X-ray diffraction photograph of an enzyme protein: pepsin. In 1935, they took another photograph of a protein hormone...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (5): 1311-1312.
Published: 21 September 2011
... author (email changzy@pku.edu.cn or Neil.Isaacs@glasgow.ac.uk ). 18 7 2011 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society 2011 Chinese biochemistry Chinese–U.K. research collaboration drug design insulin structural biology U.K. biochemistry A joint Sino...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (5): 1313-1322.
Published: 21 September 2011
... have been long-term collaborations in such areas as insulin structure and function. There are now numerous joint activities in biochemistry and biomedicine supported by the MRC (Medical Research Council), BBSRC (Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council), NERC (Natural Environment Research...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (4): 682-686.
Published: 22 July 2009
... Society 2009 aggregation β-sheet insulin nanoparticle protein folding spherulite That partially or completely misfolded proteins can aggregate to form amyloid fibrils is well established and it is partly accepted that this is a generic property of proteins under the appropriate...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (1): 223-226.
Published: 20 January 2009
... D 1 ), may also contribute to mTOR activation. Once activated, the mTOR catalytic domain phosphorylates substrates only when they are bound to raptor (regulatory associated protein of mTOR), a separate polypeptide within the complex. The mechanism of insulin/nutrient stimulation of mTOR complex 1...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 909-915.
Published: 19 September 2008
... human neurodegenerative, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. The ER stress response has also been implicated in diabetes development, affecting both insulin production by pancreatic β-cells and insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. In the present mini-review, we focus on recent...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 901-904.
Published: 19 September 2008
...Vincent Poitout The glucolipotoxicity hypothesis postulates that chronically elevated levels of glucose and fatty acids adversely affect pancreatic β-cell function and thereby contribute to the deterioration of insulin secretion in Type 2 diabetes. Whereas ample experimental evidence in in vitro...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 267-271.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Guy A. Rutter; F. Susan Wong Defective insulin secretion is a hallmark of all forms of diabetes. Whereas Type 1 diabetes has long been known to result from the immune-mediated destruction of β-cells, Type 2 diabetes appears to involve both loss of β-cell mass and glucose sensitivity in the face of...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 290-293.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Shanta J. Persaud; Dany Muller; Peter M. Jones Studies in transgenic animals, rodent insulin-secreting cell lines and rodent islets suggest that insulin acts in an autocrine manner to regulate β-cell mass and gene expression. Very little is known about the in vitro roles played by insulin in human...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1215-1217.
Published: 25 October 2007
...B. Reynolds; R. Laynes; M.H. Ögmundsdóttir; C.A.R. Boyd; D.C.I. Goberdhan The IIS (insulin/IGF (insulin-like growth factor) signalling) cascade has an important role in regulating normal development and physiology, as evidenced by its effects in a host of major human diseases including cancer, Type...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1171-1174.
Published: 25 October 2007
...A.D. Cherrington; M.C. Moore; D.K. Sindelar; D.S. Edgerton Insulin has a potent inhibitory effect on hepatic glucose production by direct action at hepatic receptors. The hormone also inhibits glucose production by suppressing both lipolysis in the fat cell and secretion of glucagon by the α-cell...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (2): 199-203.
Published: 20 March 2007
.... Remarkably, PI3K signalling in insulin-sensitive tissues of these mice is increased. The existence of p110-free p85 in insulin-responsive cells has been invoked to explain this observation. Such a monomeric p85 would compete with heterodimeric p85–p110 for pTyr (phosphotyrosine) recruitment, and thus repress...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 774-778.
Published: 25 October 2006
...P.R. Flatt; B.D. Green Increasing prevalence of obesity combined with longevity will produce an epidemic of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes in the next 20 years. This disease is associated with defects in insulin secretion, specifically abnormalities of insulin secretory kinetics and...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 819-823.
Published: 25 October 2006
... deterioration of pancreatic β-cell function. In combination with an enhanced radical production in the β-cell due to the mutation, this leads to an age-dependent, accelerated decline in insulin production. In common Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, which is generally associated with obesity, a decline...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (4): 498-501.
Published: 21 July 2006
...O. Dyachok; J. Sågetorp; Y. Isakov; A. Tengholm Activation of hormone receptors was recently found to evoke oscillations of the cAMP concentration ([cAMP]) beneath the plasma membrane of insulin-secreting cells. Here we investigate how different time courses of cAMP signals influence the generation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (2): 223-227.
Published: 20 March 2006
... status. Key regulatory elements and cognate transcription factors are still being defined. ACC specific activity is also rapidly modulated, being increased in response to insulin and decreased following exposure of cells to catabolic hormones or environmental stress. The acute control of ACC activity is...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (2): 213-216.
Published: 20 March 2006
...C.G. Proud Insulin rapidly activates protein synthesis by activating components of the translational machinery including eIFs (eukaryotic initiation factors) and eEFs (eukaryotic elongation factors). In the long term, insulin also increases the cellular content of ribosomes to augment the capacity...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (2): 238-242.
Published: 20 March 2006
... knowledge of insulin structure and action to then use recombinant approaches to design novel molecules to be able to offer the Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic patient therapies allowing a more physiological treatment regime, and also the further application of learned technology to then discover a means...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (2): 209-212.
Published: 20 March 2006
...G.I. Welsh; I. Hers; M. Wherlock; J.M. Tavaré Several members of the extensive family of small GTP-binding proteins are regulated by insulin, and have been implicated in insulin action on glucose uptake. These proteins are themselves negatively regulated by a series of specific GAPs (GTPase...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (5): 1033-1036.
Published: 26 October 2005
...T.J. Nelson; D.L. Alkon Insulin and cholesterol play important roles in basic metabolic processes in peripheral tissues. Both insulin and cholesterol can also act as signalling molecules in the central nervous system that participate in neuronal function, memory and neurodegenerative diseases. A...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (5): 1073-1077.
Published: 26 October 2005
...J. Capeau; J. Magré; O. Lascols; M. Caron; V. Béréziat; C. Vigouroux; J.P. Bastard Human lipodystrophies represent a group of diseases characterized by altered body fat amount and/or repartition and major metabolic alterations with insulin resistance leading to diabetic complications and increased...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (5): 1037-1040.
Published: 26 October 2005
...M.W.J. Strachan Data from experimental studies in animals and from epidemiological studies in humans suggest a link between insulin and cognitive performance. Do these results translate into clinical and therapeutic benefit for people with cognitive impairment? Insulin injected peripherally can...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (2): 343-345.
Published: 01 April 2005
... augment insulin receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Glycogen synthesis and glycogenolysis are phosphorylation dependent, and amenable to kinase inhibition, as are some nuclear hormone receptors, and these will be briefly discussed. 1 email abridges@quatrx.com 6 10 2004 © 2005 The...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (2): 350-353.
Published: 01 April 2005
...R.V. Farese; M.P. Sajan; M.L. Standaert It now seems clear that aPKC (atypical protein kinase C) isoforms are required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport in muscle and adipocytes. Moreover, there are marked defects in the activation of aPKCs under a variety of insulin-resistant conditions in...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (2): 346-349.
Published: 01 April 2005
...G.I. Welsh; I. Hers; D.C. Berwick; G. Dell; M. Wherlock; R. Birkin; S. Leney; J.M. Tavaré The activation of protein kinase B (or Akt) plays a central role in the stimulation of glucose uptake by insulin. Currently, however, numerous questions remain unanswered regarding the role of this kinase in...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (2): 354-357.
Published: 01 April 2005
...M. Björnholm; J.R. Zierath Type II diabetes is characterized by defects in insulin action on peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver and pancreatic β-cell defects. Since the skeletal muscle accounts for approx. 75% of whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (1): 83-85.
Published: 01 February 2004
...) uptake in cardiac myocytes from young adult obese Zucker rats is markedly increased, but insensitive to insulin. Basal and insulin-induced glucose uptake rates in these myocytes are not changed, suggesting that during the development from obesity to hyperglycaemic Type II diabetes, alterations in cardiac...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (1): 59-64.
Published: 01 February 2004
... involved include arylacetamide deacetylase and/or triacylglycerol hydrolase. Some of the re-esterified products of lipolysis gain access to an apolipoprotein-B-rich VLDL precursor to form mature VLDL. Some, however, are returned to the cytosolic pool in a process that is stimulated by insulin and inhibited...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (4): 842-847.
Published: 01 August 2003
... exocytotic response. Possible mechanisms by which NSF takes part in this process in insulin-secreting rat β-cells are discussed. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (e-mail Lena.Eliasson@mphy.lu.se ). Molecular Mechanisms of Exocytosis and Endocytosis, a Biochemical Society-supported...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2001) 29 (4): 529-534.
Published: 01 August 2001
...Z. Ahmed; T. S. Pillay APS [for ‘adapter protein with a pleckstrin homology (PH) and Src homology 2 (SH2) domain’] belongs to a family of adapter proteins involved in signalling by the receptors for insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, platelet-derived growth factor and nerve growth factor. Other...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2001) 29 (4): 535-537.
Published: 01 August 2001
..., although the consequences of this are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the activation of PI 3K-C2aL is not associated with a change in subcellular localization. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence that PI 3K-C2β is activated by insulin, albeit with slower kinetics than activation of PI 3K...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2001) 29 (4): 525-529.
Published: 01 August 2001
...D. J. Withers A family of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins mediates the pleiotropic effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on cellular function by recruiting several intracellular signalling networks. Conventional murine knockout strategies have started to reveal...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2000) 28 (2): 126-131.
Published: 01 February 2000
... kinase C adipocytes insulin metabolism tissue culture Biochemical Society Transactions (2000) Volume 28, part 2 I6 Jeuard, P., Heineman, F., Taylor, J., DesPres, D.. Wen, H., J. S., Auopardi, D., Baudin, 1. Townsend, I., Stewart, A. L. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Balaban, R...