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Keywords: microtubule
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (4): 1735–1748.
Published: 26 August 2021
...Silvia Requena; Francisco Sánchez-Madrid; Noa B. Martín-Cófreces Tubulin post-translational modifications (PTMs) constitute a source of diversity for microtubule (MT) functions, in addition to the different isotypes of α and β-tubulin acting as building blocks of MTs. Also, MT-associated proteins...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (3): 1067–1075.
Published: 03 June 2020
... 7 5 2020 © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2020 basal body centriole cilia microtubule Cilia are highly conserved organelles present at the surface of eukaryotic cells where they act as cell antenna by capturing...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (6): 1665–1672.
Published: 22 November 2018
...Claire T. Friel; Julie P. Welburn The Kinesin superfamily is a large group of molecular motors that use the turnover of ATP to regulate their interaction with the microtubule cytoskeleton. The coupled relationship between nucleotide turnover and microtubule binding is harnessed in various ways...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (4): 967–982.
Published: 31 July 2018
...Anthony J. Roberts Two classes of dynein power long-distance cargo transport in different cellular contexts. Cytoplasmic dynein-1 is responsible for the majority of transport toward microtubule minus ends in the cell interior. Dynein-2, also known as intraflagellar transport dynein, moves cargoes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (1): 141–146.
Published: 15 February 2017
... compartments. Correspondence: Sabine Hilfiker ( sabine.hilfiker@ipb.csic.es ) 16 9 2016 14 10 2016 18 10 2016 © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2017 leucine-rich repeat kinase microtubule Parkinson's disease...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (5): 1281–1288.
Published: 19 October 2016
...Andrew M. Fry; Laura O'Regan; Jessica Montgomery; Rozita Adib; Richard Bayliss The EMLs are a conserved family of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The founding member was discovered in sea urchins as a 77-kDa polypeptide that co-purified with microtubules. This protein, termed EMAP...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (3): 508–512.
Published: 01 June 2015
... that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances of the heart and focuses on the role of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Current evidence shows that Cx43 plays a crucial role in organizing microtubules at the intercalated disc and thereby...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (1): 48–57.
Published: 26 January 2015
...Rupam Jha; Thomas Surrey The cytoplasmic dynein complex is the major minus-end-directed microtubule motor. Although its directionality is evolutionary well conserved, differences exist among cytoplasmic dyneins from different species in their stepping behaviour, maximum velocity and force...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (1): 19–22.
Published: 26 January 2015
... for the destruction of cyclin B and therefore inactivation of the cyclin B–cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). This latter event induces a change in the microtubule dynamics that results in the movement of sister chromatids to spindle poles (anaphase A), spindle elongation (anaphase B) and the onset of cytokinesis...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (1): 7–12.
Published: 26 January 2015
... 2015 Biochemical Society 2015 Aurora B microtubule Ran spindle The mitotic spindle is a macromolecular, steady-state structure composed of microtubules (MTs) and their associated proteins (MAPs) that is used to segregate the genetic material to the two daughter cells. MTs are polarized...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (6): 1506–1511.
Published: 17 November 2014
.... 1 email husem@mskcc.org 17 7 2014 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2014 Biochemical Society 2014 actin cell polarity microtubule protein kinase C (PKC) signal transduction T-cell T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement of cognate peptide–major histocompatibility...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1736–1744.
Published: 20 November 2013
...Jonathan L.D. Lawson; Rafael E. Carazo Salas The post-genomic era has produced a variety of new investigation technologies, techniques and approaches that may offer exciting insights into many long-standing questions of scientific research. The microtubule cytoskeleton is a highly conserved system...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1731–1735.
Published: 20 November 2013
...Nenad Pavin; Iva M. Tolić-Nørrelykke To exert forces, motor proteins bind with one end to cytoskeletal filaments, such as microtubules and actin, and with the other end to the cell cortex, a vesicle or another motor. A general question is how motors search for sites in the cell where both motor...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 661–666.
Published: 20 July 2012
... protein. Tau is normally enriched in axons, where it binds and stabilizes MTs (microtubules). Tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation probably result in reduced MT binding that could affect axonal transport and neuronal function. A possible therapeutic strategy to overcome a loss of tau function...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 672–676.
Published: 20 July 2012
...Anne Rovelet-Lecrux; Dominique Campion Mutations of the MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau) gene are associated with FTLD (frontotemporal lobar degeneration) with tau pathology. These mutations result in a decreased ability of tau to bind MTs (microtubules), an increased production of tau...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (2): 438–443.
Published: 21 March 2012
... molecules moving along microtubules while pulling a bead, the position of which is monitored optically while trapped in a laser focus. Analysing results from such experiments, in which thermally excited water molecules are violently buffeting the system components, can be quite difficult. At low loads...
Includes: Multimedia, Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (5): 1154–1160.
Published: 21 September 2011
... on the regulation of microtubule dynamics and a fine balance of forces exerted by various molecular motors. Chromosomes are themselves central players in spindle assembly. They generate a RanGTP gradient that triggers microtubule nucleation and stabilization locally and they interact dynamically...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (5): 1169–1178.
Published: 21 September 2011
...Victoria J. Allan The organization and function of eukaryotic cells rely on the action of many different molecular motor proteins. Cytoplasmic dynein drives the movement of a wide range of cargoes towards the minus ends of microtubules, and these events are needed, not just at the single-cell level...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (5): 1191–1196.
Published: 21 September 2011
... is regulated by the activity of organelle-associated motor proteins, kinesins, dyneins and myosins, which move cargo along polar MT (microtubule) and actin tracks. However, in most instances, the motors that move specific organelles remain mysterious. Over recent years, pigment granules, or melanosomes, within...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (5): 1197–1201.
Published: 21 September 2011
... mediated by cytoskeletal elements (microtubules and actin filaments) and associated mechanoenzymes. Among the best-studied model systems of RNA localization are the oocyte and the early embryo of Drosophila melanogaster , for which many well-characterized tools have been developed to study this cell...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (5): 1120–1125.
Published: 21 September 2011
... transport) in which IFT cargoes are transported along axonemal microtubules by kinesin and dynein motors. A variety of genetic, biochemical and cell biological approaches has established the heterotrimeric kinesin-2 motor as the ‘core’ IFT motor, whereas other members of the kinesin-2, kinesin-3 and kinesin...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (4): 953–954.
Published: 26 July 2010
...Efthimios M.C. Skoulakis; Amritpal Mudher Tauopathies are a clinically diverse group of neurodegenerative dementias involving perturbations of the level or phosphorylation state of the microtubule-binding axonal protein tau. Despite intense effort in recent years, the precise role of tau...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (4): 977–980.
Published: 26 July 2010
...Jesús Avila; Elena Gómez de Barreda; Tobias Engel; Jose J. Lucas; Félix Hernández The MAP (microtubule-associated protein) tau binds to tubulin, the main component of MTs (microtubules), which results in the stabilization of MT polymers. Tau binds to the C-terminal of tubulin, like other MAPs...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (4): 981–987.
Published: 26 July 2010
... Biochemical Society 2010 Alzheimer's disease Drosophila microtubule mushroom body neuron phosphorylation tau Tau is a predominantly axonal microtubule-associated phosphoprotein [ 1 , 2 ]. In Alzheimer's disease and a variety of sporadic neurodegenerative disorders with distinct...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (4): 988–992.
Published: 26 July 2010
...Catherine M. Cowan; David Shepherd; Amritpal Mudher AD (Alzheimer's disease) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the abnormal hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau and the misfolding and deposition of Aβ peptide. The mechanisms by which tau...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (3): 747–753.
Published: 24 May 2010
...) and the luminal marker of the ER (HDEL–GFP; green) Note the boluses at junctions and termini of tubules. The cytoskeleton is involved in remodelling the ER. Animal cells primarily use the microtubule cytoskeleton to guide remodelling of the network in non-dividing cells [ 21 – 23 ], and may switch...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (3): 755–760.
Published: 24 May 2010
... at the cell cortex and what is known about its assembly and trafficking. actin cellulose synthase complex cell wall endoplasmic reticulum Golgi body microtubule plant 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email simon.turner@manchester.ac.uk ). 14 12 2009 ©...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (2): 564–570.
Published: 22 March 2010
...Catherine M. Cowan; Francis Chee; David Shepherd; Amritpal Mudher Axonal microtubules are essential for transport of materials to the synapse. Compromised microtubules and synaptic loss have been demonstrated in AD (Alzheimer's disease), which is believed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (5): 991–996.
Published: 21 September 2009
...Michael A. Welte Lipid droplets are intracellular organelles that play central roles in lipid metabolism. In many cells, lipid droplets undergo active motion, typically along microtubules. This motion has been proposed to aid growth and breakdown of droplets, to allow net transfer of nutrients from...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (5): 961–965.
Published: 21 September 2009
... needed, and the balance between tubular and lamellar regions can be altered. The distribution and organization of the ER depends on both motile and static interactions with microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. In the present paper, we review how the ER moves, and consider why this movement may...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (5): 1002–1006.
Published: 21 September 2009
...Kevin C. Slep The XMAP215 ( Xenopus microtubule-associated protein 215) and CLASP [CLIP-170 (cytoskeletal linker protein 170) associated protein] microtubule plus end tracking families play central roles in the regulation of interphase microtubule dynamics and the proper formation of mitotic...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 381–383.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Henrik Bringmann The mitotic spindle positions the cytokinesis furrow. The cytokinesis furrow then forms and ingresses at the site of the mitotic spindle, between the spindle poles. Two populations of spindle microtubules are implicated in cytokinesis furrow positioning: radial microtubule arrays...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 442–443.
Published: 21 May 2008
... correspondence should be addressed (email guillaume.montagnac@curie.fr ). 11 1 2008 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Biochemical Society 2008 cytokinesis endosome membrane recycling microtubule During mitosis of animal cells, the mitotic MT (microtubule) spindle drives...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 416–420.
Published: 21 May 2008
... 2008 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Biochemical Society 2008 asymmetric cell division budding yeast cytokinesis microtubule spindle pole body spindle position checkpoint Asymmetric cell division is widespread in Nature and generates unequal daughter cells...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (1): 131–135.
Published: 22 January 2008
...Naoki Numata; Takahide Kon; Tomohiro Shima; Kenji Imamula; Toshifumi Mogami; Reiko Ohkura; Keiko Sutoh; Kazuo Sutoh Dynein is an AAA+ (ATPase associated with various cellular activities)-type motor complex that utilizes ATP hydrolysis to actively drive microtubule sliding. The dynein heavy chain...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 716–721.
Published: 25 October 2006
... assembly, including its effects on microtubule assembly dynamics and microtubule organization. In addition, we examine the possibility of a spindle matrix and the role Ran might play in such a structure. Extensive studies have shown that mitotic entry driven by CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) initiates...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 687–690.
Published: 25 October 2006
... is the transport of secretory vesicles from Golgi to the vicinity of the plasma membrane via microtubules and their associated motors. At the vicinity of the plasma membrane, however, it is not clear how vesicles finally dock and fuse with the plasma membrane. Identification of proteins involved in these events...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (4): 550–553.
Published: 21 July 2006
... meiotic cohesin. Telomere clustering may also be modulated by progression in recombination. These observations suggest that the unique meiotic nuclear topology and telomere dynamics are regulated at different levels. © 2006 The Biochemical Society 2006 actin bouquet microtubule synaptic meiosis...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (5): 891–895.
Published: 26 October 2005
... controls cell protrusion, while Cdc42 controls cell polarity. 1 email alan.hall@ucl.ac.uk 3 6 2005 © 2005 The Biochemical Society 2005 actin GTPase microtubule polarity Rho Figure 5 A Cdc42-dependent signal transduction pathway controls microtubule polarity...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (6): 1295–1298.
Published: 26 October 2005
... of microtubules. Studies of a vertebrate synapse and the Drosophila neuromuscular junction suggest that a conserved Wnt signalling pathway modulates presynaptic microtubules as axons remodel during synapse formation. In this paper I discuss the role of the Wnt–Dvl (Dishevelled protein)–GSK-3β (glycogen synthase...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (6): 1269–1272.
Published: 26 October 2005
... aspects of microtubule-dependent functions. Thus, a second major role for Arf family GTPases, that of regulating microtubules, is emerging. Because membrane traffic is often dependent upon movement of vesicles along microtubules this raises the possibility that these two fundamental functions of Arf...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (6): 1253–1256.
Published: 01 December 2003
... are studying the possible involvement of cytoskeletal elements in the organization of the TCs. Our data suggest that microtubules also play a role in the immobilization of the TCs. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (e-mail kreibg01@med.nyu.edu ). 679th Meeting of the Biochemical Society...