1-50 of 70
Keyword: transcription
Close
Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) BST20180496.
Published: 26 November 2019
... their active counterparts, assembly of signaling hubs, or modulation of protein localization. One such pseudokinase, named Tra1 in yeast and transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP) in mammals, is the only member lacking all catalytic residues within the phosphatidylinositol 3...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (3): 847-860.
Published: 13 May 2019
... processes, such as transcription. The current state of research on mycobacteriophage-derived anti-TB treatment is reviewed in comparison with inhibitors from other phages, and with focus on transcription as the host target process. Correspondence: Christina Julius ( C.Julius2@ncl.ac.uk ) 5 11...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (2): 679-689.
Published: 05 March 2019
...Amber Riaz-Bradley Transcription in cyanobacteria involves several fascinating features. Cyanobacteria comprise one of the very few groups in which no proofreading factors (Gre homologues) have been identified. Gre factors increase the efficiency of RNA cleavage, therefore helping to maintain the...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 399-410.
Published: 07 February 2019
...Alexis Verger; Didier Monté; Vincent Villeret Mediator is a large multiprotein complex conserved in all eukaryotes that plays an essential role in transcriptional regulation. Mediator comprises 25 subunits in yeast and 30 subunits in humans that form three main modules and a separable four-subunit...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 411-423.
Published: 01 February 2019
...Kevin Kramm; Christoph Engel; Dina Grohmann In all domains of life, the regulation of transcription by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) is achieved at the level of initiation to a large extent. Whereas bacterial promoters are recognized by a σ-factor bound to the RNAP, a complex set of...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 339-350.
Published: 15 January 2019
...Hamed Mosaei; Hamed Mosaei; John Harbottle; John Harbottle Transcription, the first phase of gene expression, is performed by the multi-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP). Bacterial RNAP is a validated target for clinical antibiotics. Many natural and synthetic compounds are now known to target RNAP...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 209-217.
Published: 21 December 2018
... that transcription initiation involves multiple steps with non-equilibrium transitions [ 67 , 68 , 70 ]. RNA polymerase initially forms a complex with the promoter in which the DNA is double-stranded (closed), thereby preventing transcription. Promoter melting must occur to form the transcriptionally...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 219-228.
Published: 21 December 2018
...David Forrest Transcription, the first step of gene expression, is accomplished in all domains of life by the multisubunit RNA polymerase (msRNAP). Accordingly, the msRNAP is an ancient enzyme that is ubiquitous across all cellular organisms. Conserved in absolutely all msRNAPs is the catalytic...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (1): 279-285.
Published: 09 February 2016
... inositide metabolism, nuclear signalling and transcriptional regulation. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email ray.blind@vanderbilt.edu). 30 11 2015 © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited 2016 IPMK ipk2 ArgR inositide multikinase transcription...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 1123-1128.
Published: 11 August 2014
... production of toxic RNA and/or protein or causes transcriptional repression and silencing of the host gene. Although the molecular mechanisms of expansion diseases are not well understood, mounting evidence suggests that transcription through expanded repeats plays an essential role in disease pathology. The...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1673-1678.
Published: 20 November 2013
... Yamamoto laboratory as a suppressor of the uncontrolled meiosis driven by a pat1 mutant. Numerous studies from this laboratory and others have established the role of the Ste11 transcription factor as the master regulator of the switch between proliferation and differentiation in fission yeast. The...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1660-1665.
Published: 20 November 2013
...Miriam Sansó; Robert P. Fisher CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases) ensure directionality and fidelity of the eukaryotic cell division cycle. In a similar fashion, the transcription cycle is governed by a conserved subfamily of CDKs that phosphorylate Pol II (RNA polymerase II) and other substrates. A...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1666-1672.
Published: 20 November 2013
... concomitantly with polII (RNA polymerase II) transcription, it has become evident that QC acts at the transcriptional level in addition to degrading aberrant RNAs. In the present review, we discuss mechanisms that allow cells to co-transcriptionally initiate the removal of RNAs as well as down-regulate...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (4): 1008-1016.
Published: 18 July 2013
... structural biology of the CDK family has been extended by determination of structures for members of the transcriptional CDK and CDK-like kinase branches of the extended family. We include these recent structures in the present review and consider them in the light of current models for CDK activation and...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 727-740.
Published: 23 May 2013
...-modifying activities that are thought to contribute to transcriptional repression and maintain heterochromatic regions of the genome. In contrast with DNA methylation, which is found broadly across vertebrate genomes, non-methylated DNA is concentrated in regions known as CGIs (CpG islands). Recently, a...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (2): 542-547.
Published: 21 March 2013
.... However, its contribution must be assessed in the context of inputs from the conventional transcription factors mentioned above and those of the NAPs. The promoters of the SPI genes and operons are transcriptionally repressed (or ‘silenced’) by H-NS. This abundant dimeric DNA-binding protein binds...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (1): 356-361.
Published: 29 January 2013
... shibatae RNAP) in complex with dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) constitutes a new piece of information helping the understanding of the mechanisms for DNA stabilization at the position downstream of the catalytic site during transcription. In Archaea, in contrast with Eukarya, downstream DNA stabilization is...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 846-849.
Published: 20 July 2012
...Steven West Splicing is a key process for mRNA maturation, particularly in higher eukaryotes where most protein-coding transcripts contain multiple introns. It is achieved by the concerted action of five snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs) and hundreds of accessory proteins that form the spliceosome...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 762-767.
Published: 20 July 2012
... transcription The miRNA family of endogenous short single-stranded RNAs down-regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Sequence-specific miRNA binding at recognition sites in the 3′-UTRs (untranslated regions) of target mRNAs leads to translational repression and/or mRNA destabilization via...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (2): 311-323.
Published: 21 March 2012
...) E3 ligases [hPC2 (human polycomb protein 2) and PIAS1 (protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1)] [ 39 ] that remodel target gene chromatin into transcriptionally inactive facultative heterochromatin. Curiously, however, CtBP can also work as a transcriptional...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (1): 1-5.
Published: 19 January 2012
.... Central to this is the coupling of cAMP elevation to the mobilization of two C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) family transcription factors, resulting in the induction of the SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling 3) gene, which attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokine signalling in VECs. These novel...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (1): 25-30.
Published: 19 January 2011
... step towards the understanding of Rpo13's role in archaeal transcription. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email nabrescia@cicbiogune.es ). 29 9 2010 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society 2011 archaeon RNA polymerase Rpo13...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (1): 122-127.
Published: 19 January 2011
...Dina Grohmann; Daniel Klose; Daniel Fielden; Finn Werner The complex organization of the transcription machinery has been revealed mainly by biochemical and crystallographic studies. X-ray structures describe RNA polymerases and transcription complexes on an atomic level, but fail to portray their...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1543-1547.
Published: 24 November 2010
... the nucleus and incorporated into pre-ribosomal subunits at the nucleolus, where they bind to the rRNA co-transcriptionally [ 20 ]. The nucleolus is divided into three morphologically distinct subcompartments: transcription, early processing and rRNA modifications occur within the innermost FC...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1598-1601.
Published: 24 November 2010
... transcriptional target genes and some genes not transcriptionally regulated by Myc. It is important to note that induced formation of the methyl cap is not simply a result of the Myc transcriptional programme since Myc mutants that are completely defective for transcriptional activity remain competent to regulate...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 217-222.
Published: 19 January 2010
... transcriptional regulation, cells employ a vast array of post-transcriptional mechanisms that can rapidly modulate cyclin D1 activity, to allow appropriate cell cycle progression in response to the cellular context. These regulate cyclin D1 co- and post-transcriptionally, affecting its processing and stability...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (6): 1375-1377.
Published: 19 November 2009
... transcription factor zif268 (egr1). Hence, it is predicted that zif268 may regulate transcription of genes associated with glutamate receptors and/or GABA A Rs. It turns out that receptor regulation by zif268 tends to be indirect. Induction of zif268 in neurons leads to altered expression of proteasome subunit...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (6): 1147-1160.
Published: 19 November 2009
... 2009 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2009 Biochemical Society 2009 calcium signalling neurodegeneration neuroprotection N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) oxidative stress transcription NMDARs [NMDA ( N -methyl- D -aspartate) receptors] are cation-passing channels...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (1): 12-17.
Published: 20 January 2009
..., nucleic acid binding, catalysis and specific regulatory interactions with transcription factors. The recent development of methods to reconstitute archaeal RNAP from recombinant materials in conjunction with structural information of multisubunit RNAPs present a potent opportunity to investigate the...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (1): 52-57.
Published: 20 January 2009
...Bart de Koning; Fabian Blombach; Hao Wu; Stan J.J. Brouns; John van der Oost MBF1 (multiprotein bridging factor 1) is a highly conserved protein in archaea and eukaryotes. It was originally identified as a mediator of the eukaryotic transcription regulator BmFTZ-F1 ( Bombyx mori regulator of fushi...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (1): 18-22.
Published: 20 January 2009
... enzyme shows close structural similarity to eukaryotic RNAP, particularly to polymerase II, and can therefore be used as model for analyses of the eukaryotic transcriptional machinery. The cleft loops in the active centre of RNAP were deleted and modified to unravel their function in interaction with...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (6): 1262-1266.
Published: 19 November 2008
... transcriptional activation through binding of a regulatory factor at higher zinc levels (type D mechanism, as represented in Figure 1 ). Metallothoinein-I and -II genes and the gene for the zinc transporter ZnT1, responsible for the efflux of zinc across the plasma membrane, are up-regulated transcriptionally...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (6): 1160-1164.
Published: 19 November 2008
... bacterium metalloregulatory protein nitric oxide regulatory protein transcription transition metal cofactor Transcriptional regulators containing transition metal cofactors provide effective mechanisms for controlling gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Haem and iron–sulfur...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 619-624.
Published: 22 July 2008
... ]. However, the chromatin structures of individual rDNA repeats are not distinguishable by this method. Heterogeneity in the transcriptional state of rDNA repeats was revealed by electron microscopy analyses [ 2 ], with some repeats transcribed and others transcriptionally silent. The observed high density...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 625-628.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Richard D. Palermo; Helen M. Webb; Andrea Gunnell; Michelle J. West The EBNA 2 (Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen 2) transcription factor is essential for B-cell transformation by the cancer-associated EBV (Epstein–Barr virus) and for the continuous proliferation of infected cells. EBNA 2 activates...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 754-757.
Published: 22 July 2008
...David C. Grainger; Stephen J.W. Busby A major goal in the study of gene regulation is to untangle the transcription-regulatory networks of Escherichia coli and other ‘simple’ organisms. To do this we must catalogue the binding sites of all transcription factors. ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 776-779.
Published: 22 July 2008
... functional states of the transcribing enzyme RNA polymerase and its attendant activator proteins. In bacteria, major adaptive responses use an enhancer-dependent RNA polymerase, activated for transcription by a class of ATPases that remodel initial promoter complexes to form transcriptionally proficient open...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 590-594.
Published: 22 July 2008
... ], emphasizing the close link between transcription and RNA processing. Recent work has demonstrated that the CTD of the large subunit of pol II and its phosphorylation are required for 3′-box-dependent RNA 3′-end formation in vivo [ 6 , 25 ], indicating that processing occurs co-transcriptionally. The CTD...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 595-598.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Laura M. Elsby; Stefan G.E. Roberts Transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the assembly of the general transcription factors at the promoter to form a pre-initiation complex. The general transcription factor TF (transcription factor) IIB plays a central role in the assembly of the pre...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 360-362.
Published: 21 May 2008
... between CD22 and GPR40 contains several evolutionarily conserved sequence blocks, among them HR2 and HR3 . β-Cell-specific expression of GPR40 is controlled at the transcriptional level through HR2, a potent β-cell-specific enhancer. The mechanisms controlling cell-specific expression of the remaining...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 505-507.
Published: 21 May 2008
... number of cellular processes including signal transduction, transcription, RNA metabolism, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. In the present review, we summarize the functions of Sam68 as a transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression, with particular relevance to cancer...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 537-539.
Published: 21 May 2008
... of pre-snRNAs [ 3 ]. Transcription of all genes by Pol II (RNA polymerase II) involves assembly of the pre-initiation complex, transcription initiation, elongation and termination. In common with pre-mRNAs, newly transcribed pre-snRNAs are co-transcriptionally capped at the 5′-end [ 4...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 540-542.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Carine Barreau; Elizabeth Benson; Helen White-Cooper Post-meiotic transcription is widespread in mammalian spermatogenesis, but is generally believed to be absent from Drosophila spermatogenesis. Genes required during meiosis, in early spermatids or later in spermiogenesis are typically transcribed...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 543-545.
Published: 21 May 2008
... onset of term and preterm labour. COX - 2 gene regulation is controlled at various levels including gene transcription and post-transcriptional events. The present article focuses on the complexity of COX - 2 gene regulation and reviews current concepts that highlight: (i) transcription of COX - 2 is...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (6): 1409-1413.
Published: 23 November 2007
... motif (PDSM) small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) transcription ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (Ubc9) A central way of diversifying protein function is through the post-translational addition or removal of chemical groups. Among these modifiers, Ubls (ubiquitin-like proteins) such as SUMO...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1342-1346.
Published: 25 October 2007
...-damaging agents, hyperphosphorylated BRCA1 no longer forms a complex with CtIP/CtBP, which allows BRCA1 to transactivate the p21 promoter. Figure 3 An overview of BRCA1 transcriptional regulated targets and their impact on cell cycle progression BRCA1 has been shown to transcriptionally up-regulate...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (6): 1072-1074.
Published: 25 October 2006
... 22 6 2006 © 2006 The Biochemical Society 2006 bacterium partitioning plasmid maintenance plasmid replication plasmid transfer transcription Plasmids are extrachromosomal genetic elements that by definition are non-essential for survival of their host, but which often confer a...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 786-790.
Published: 25 October 2006
... 1 8 2006 © 2006 The Biochemical Society 2006 adenine BAS1 PHO2 purine nucleotide biosynthesis transcription yeast Purine nucleotides occupy a central position in cellular metabolism. These nucleotides are constituents of the genetic material, participate as cofactors...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (6): 1075-1078.
Published: 25 October 2006
...N.S. Miroslavova; J.E. Mitchell; J. Tebbutt; S.J.W. Busby Genetics and biochemistry have been exploited to investigate transcription activation by the Escherichia coli CRP (cAMP receptor protein) factor at promoters with a DNA site for CRP near position −41 and the effects of a second upstream...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (6): 1148-1150.
Published: 25 October 2006
... additional cloning and sequencing efforts helped validate that many novel transcripts originate from ‘intergenic’ and intronic regions, although one must keep in mind that such data have been generated from immortalized cell lines. Nevertheless, 61% of validated transcriptionally active regions had...