The short-term effects of high concentrations of Methylprednisolone (MP) on the energy metabolism of quiescent and Concanavalin A-stimulated rat thymocytes were investigated in vitro. Concanavalin A (ConA) stimulated the respiration rate of quiescent thymocytes by 35%. Addition of more than 0.15 mg MP/107 cells to ConA-stimulated cells reversed this respiratory stimulation; in addition, higher concentrations of MP caused a similar progressive decrease in the rate of respiration of both quiescent and ConA-stimulated cells. Similarly, the stimulation of respiration by ConA was greatly reduced in MP-treated cells. MP addition lowered cytoplasmic [Ca2+] and, at high concentrations, abolished the ability of ConA to increase [Ca2+]. Thus MP both reverses and prevents the immediate stimulation of thymocytes by ConA.
In quiescent thymocytes, MP strongly inhibited that part of the oxygen consumption used to drive the cycle of Na+ influx across the plasma membrane and Na+ efflux on the Na+K+-ATPase, but did not inhibit oxygen consumption used to drive protein synthesis. In ConA-stimulated thymocytes MP had the same effects and also strongly inhibited oxygen consumption dependent on the cycle of Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane and Ca2+ efflux on the Ca2+-ATPase, but had little effect on oxygen consumption used to drive RNA and DNA synthesis.
These results show that MP prevents cation cycling in thymocytes (either by preventing cation influx or by inhibiting cation pumps) and prevents mitogenic stimulation of the cells. The high MP concentration required and the speed of onset of the effect (lless than 30s) provide strong evidence that these effects of MP are not mediated by glucocorticoid receptors and subsequent activation of gene expression. They may be caused by direct effects of MP on the properties of the plasma membrane. These effects are considered to be, at least partially, responsible for the beneficial results that currently have been obtained using MP megadoses in various clinical situations.