Divalent cations play an important role in the functions of biomembranes. This review deals with three topics: (1) Mg2+-mediated change in physical state of phospholipid induces conformation and activity change of reconstituted mitochondrial H+-ATPase, (2) a proper transmembrane Ca2+ gradient is essential for the higher enzymatic activity of adenylate cyclase, and (3) role of transmembrane Ca2+ gradient in the modulation of reconstituted sarcoplasmic reticulm Ca2+-ATPase activity.

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