On the 15 of May we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the outstanding Russian biologist Elias E. Metchnikoff (1845–1916)—Nobel Prize winner (1908), full and honorary member of many scientific academies of the world. His main works were applied to the zoology of invertebtates, evolution, embryology, immunology, microbiology, infectious pathology, gerontology, etc. Elias Metchnikoff published essays on anthropology, theory of orthobiosis, role of social and social-hygienic factors in solving the problems of old age and life elongation. On 30 May-2 June 1995 an International Symposium dedicated to Metchnikoff's 150th anniversary was held in Moscow. This is a text of the lecture given by us at the opening ceremony.

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